✎✎✎ Rhetorical Analysis Of Test-Tube Babies

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Rhetorical Analysis Of Test-Tube Babies



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Organizations of all kinds publish informa- tion describing their missions, operations, and achievements. Sources include Web sites and online articles, brochures, news- paper and magazine articles, and annual reports. You might also consider consulting published opinion polls that report on trends in attitudes. See, for example, the Pew Research Center Web site at people-press.

To hone in on how audience members from other cultures might view spe- cific issues, consider consulting cross-cultural polls such as the World Values Survey www. Assess the Speech Setting and Context As important as analyzing the audience is assessing and then preparing for the setting in which you will give your speech— size of audience, location, time, seating arrangement, and rhetorical situation: 1. Where will the speech take place? How long am I expected to speak? How many people will attend? Will I need a microphone?

How will any equipment I plan to use in my speech, such as an LCD projector, function in the space? Where will I stand or sit in relation to the audience? Will I be able to interact with the listeners? Who else will be speaking? Are there special events or circumstances of concern to my audience that I should acknowledge the rhetorical situation? Even if the topic is assigned, as often happens in the classroom and workplace, you must still adapt it to suit the unique audience and speech situation. Decide Where to Begin Selecting a topic, whether for a classroom speech or another venue, can be approached from a variety of angles. You can start even closer to the ground by making an inventory of your own interests and life experiences, from favorite activities and hobbies to deeply held goals and values.

Wherever you choose to begin, pick a topic you are drawn to and want to know more about. As one source of ideas, consider searching your favorite print or online publi- cations. Beware, however, of choosing highly charged topics for which people have deeply held beliefs, such as abortion or prayer in the school. When it comes to core values, people rarely respond to persuasion see Chapter 24 , so speeches on such topics are likely to accomplish little beyond raising tension in the classroom. Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas To generate ideas for topics, try brainstorming by word association, topic mapping, or category. To brainstorm by word association, write down a single topic that might interest you and your listeners.

Next, write down the first thing that comes to mind. Continue this process until you have a list of fifteen to twenty items. Directory dir. As related ideas come to you, write them down, as shown in Figure 7. To narrow your topic, try brainstorming by category. Say your general topic is video games. Categories could include platform handheld, arcade , type racing, roleplaying , or operating system Linux, Macintosh, Windows. As you brain- storm by category, ask yourself: What questions do I have about the topic? What does my audience know about video games and what aspects are they most likely to want to hear about?

In others, the choice will be left to you. Even when the topic is specified, you must still refine and adapt the topic to fit the general speech purpose. The general purpose of the persuasive speech is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors of audience members. The general pur- pose of the special occasion speech will be variously to enter- tain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda. When you narrow a topic, you focus on specific aspects of it to the exclusion of others. Restrict your focus to what you can compe- tently research and then report on in the time you are given to speak.

Form a Specific Speech Purpose The specific speech purpose lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech. Nevertheless, it is important to formulate it for yourself in order to implant in your mind exactly what you want your speech to accomplish. Compose a Thesis Statement After narrowing your topic and forming your specific pur- pose, your next step is to formulate a thesis statement. The thesis statement also called central idea is the theme or central idea of the speech stated in the form of a single, declarative sentence.

The main points, the supporting material, and the conclusion all relate to the thesis. The thesis statement and the specific purpose are closely linked. Both state the speech topic, but in different forms. The specific purpose describes in action form what you want to achieve with the speech; the thesis statement concisely identifies, in a single idea, what the speech is about.

The specific purpose does not have to be stated in the speech itself. The thesis, on the other hand, must be clearly stated because the entire speech rests on it. Postpone Development of Main Points Whether the speech is informative or persuasive, the thesis statement proposes that the statement made is true or is believed. The speech is then developed from this premise; it presents facts and evidence to support the thesis as true. Thus, you should always postpone the development of main points or the consideration of supporting material until you have formulated the speech purpose and thesis see Chapter In a persuasive speech, the thesis statement represents what you are going to prove in the address.

This is an especially good approach because using such a tool to generate narrower ideas also guarantees that the new ideas are supported by credible sources. For example, to narrow down the topic of smoking in the movies, you could use a library portal to locate rele- vant books and access online periodical databases that offer full-text articles evaluated for reliability by librarians and other content experts. Using Advanced Library Portal Searches Advanced search allows you to home in on credible sources even more likely to help you.

This will help you better distill your specific purpose and develop your thesis statement. Make the Thesis Statement Relevant and Motivating Try to express the thesis statement in a way that will motivate the audience to listen. In many cases, creating relevant state- ments can be accomplished by adding a few key words or phrases to the claim. Use information about the audience members to make the topic relevant to them. Review your research materials to determine whether they contribute to the thesis or stray from it.

When you actually draft your speech, work your thesis statement into it and restate it where appropriate. Doing so will encourage your audience to understand and accept your message. Developing 8 Supporting Material Good speeches contain accurate, relevant, and interesting supporting material in the form of examples, narratives, tes- timony, facts, and statistics. As you research your speech, focus on alternating among several different types of supporting materials. Offer Examples Examples illustrate, describe, or represent things. Their pur- pose is to aid understanding by making ideas, items, or events more concrete. Examples are particularly helpful when they are used to describe or explain things with which the audi- ence is unfamiliar.

Corlin offers the following brief example to illustrate what American medicine can do: We often hear about the problems of the American health care delivery system, but just think what it can do. My year-old father who needed a hip replacement got it— the week it was discovered that he needed it. Extended examples offer multifaceted illus- trations of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, M. The first time came. The second time, amazingly, came just four weeks later, when Watson and Crick published their discov- ery of the double helix structure of DNA. The third time was in , when the U. For many of you, that was the first day of what turned into a year movement to alter a culture of harm.

Your sci- ence and determination helped America turn the tide against tobacco and smoking — saving the lives of millions. Republican Representative Vernon Ehlers of Michigan offered the following hypothetical example when he spoke at a congres- sional hearing in support of a bill to ban human cloning: What if in the cloning process you produce someone with two heads and three arms? Are you simply going to euthanize and dispose of that person?

The answer is no. Common to all stories are the essential elements of a plot, characters, set- ting, and some sort of time line. Stories can be brief and simple descriptions of short inci- dents worked into the speech, or relatively drawn-out accounts that constitute most of the presentation. In either case, a successful story will strike a chord and create an emo- tional connection between speaker and audience members. For example, in , then presidential candidate Barack Obama opened his remarks to members of the Ebeneezer Baptist Church with a parable—a story illustrating a moral or religious lesson—from the Bible: The Scripture tells us that when Joshua and the Israelites arrived at the gates of Jericho, they could not enter.

The walls of the city were too steep for any one person to climb; too strong to be taken down with brute force. And so they sat for days, unable to pass on through. But God had a plan for his people. It should be no more than two minutes in a typical talk. Supply the name and qualifications of the person whose testimony you use, and inform listeners when and where the testimony was offered. The following is an example: In testimony before the U. Statistics are quantified evidence that summarizes, compares, and predicts things. Use Statistics Accurately Statistics add precision to speech claims, if you know what the numbers actually mean and use terms that describe them accurately.

Describ- ing the frequencies of males and females in the Colorado population in percentages shows even more clearly how sim- ilar the two amounts are: Usually we think of the average as the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores. This is the mean, the arithmetic average. But there are two other kinds of averages—the median and the mode. Consider a teacher, whose nine students scored 5, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 28, and 30, with 30 points being the highest possible grade.

Following are steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of using false or misleading statistics: Use only reliable statistics. Include statistics from the most authoritative source you can locate, and evaluate the methods used to generate the data. The more information that is avail- able about how the statistics came about, the more reliable the source is likely to be. Present statistics in context. Inform listeners of when the data were collected, the method used to collect the data, and the scope of the research: These figures represent data collected during from questionnaires distributed to all public and private schools in the U. Nor are statistics necessarily any more accurate than the human who collected them.

Offer data as they appropri- ately represent your point, but refrain from declaring that these data are definitive. QUICK TIP Avoid Cherry-Picking When you search for statistics to confirm an opinion or belief you already hold, you are probably cherry-picking — selectively presenting only those statistics that buttress your point of view while ignoring competing data. Present statistics in context or not at all. Refer Orally to Your Sources Clearly identify the source of your information and provide enough context including approximate date of publica- tion to accurately interpret it. Primary research is original or firsthand research such as interviews and surveys see Chapter 6. Secondary research, the focus here, includes information produced by others.

What do you need to elaborate upon, explain, demonstrate, or prove? Different topics suggest varying amounts of primary and secondary research. A speech on drinking habits on campus, delivered to classmates in a beginning speech course, suggests at least some primary research in the form of interviews, surveys, or personal observations. Nearly all topics benefit from a mix of both primary and secondary research. Locate Secondary Sources The most likely sources of secondary research include books, newspapers, periodicals, government publications, blogs, and reference works such as encyclopedias, almanacs, books of quotations, and atlases.

Books Books explore topics in depth. A well-written book provides detail and perspective and can serve as an excellent source of supporting examples, stories, facts, and statistics. To search the titles of all books currently in print in the United States, refer to Books in Print at www. Alternatively, log on to Amazon. Newspapers and Periodicals In addition to reports on the major issues and events of the day, many newspaper stories include detailed background or his- toric information.

Several Web sites devoted to newspapers include newspaper archives e. A periodical is a regularly published magazine or journal. Periodicals can be excellent sources because they generally include all types of supporting material, as discussed in Chapter 8. Periodicals include general-interest magazines such as Time and Newsweek, as well as the thousands of spe- cialized magazines, newsletters, and refereed journals. Arti- cles in refereed journals are evaluated by experts before being published and supply sources for the information they con- tain. Articles in general-interest magazines rarely contain cita- tions and may or may not be written by experts on the topic.

Most general-interest magazines are available in Infotrac Online. There is also an ever-increasing array of databases devoted to individual disciplines such as business, health, education, and psychology. Government Publications Nearly all the information contained in government docu- ments comes from primary sources and is therefore highly credible. Get started by logging on to FirstGov. The site also includes links to reliable statistics of every kind. Reference Works Reference works include, but are not limited to, encyclope- dias, almanacs, biographical resources, books of quotations, poetry collections, and atlases.

Their usefulness lies in providing an overview of subjects. General encyclopedias attempt to cover all important subject areas of knowledge. Specialized encyclopedias delve deeply into one subject area, such as religion, science, art, sports, or engineering. The most comprehensive of the general encyclopedias is the Ency- clopaedia Britannica. As with encyclopedias, there are both general and specialized almanacs. Fully one-third of the Ency- clopaedia Britannica is devoted to biographies. For analyses and criticism of the published works of, individuals you may be speaking about, see Current Biography or Dictionary of American Biography. Countless specialized biographies feature everything from African American Inventors to Famous Hispanics in the World and in History access is free at coloquio.

Every library has a collec- tion of poetry anthologies as well as the collected works of individual poets. Online, search for poetry on poetryarchive. As well as serving to locate a particular locale and learn about its terrain and demograph- ics, many atlases use maps to explore art history, human anatomy, and many other subjects. Online, go to the National Geographic Web site.

To learn about what atlases offer beyond geography, conduct a search of atlases related to your topic, e. These can be useful as research and as models of speeches. Following is a sample note for a summary see also sample notes for paraphrases, p. You can find more information on oral citation in Chap- ter Indicate whether the material is a direct quota- tion, a paraphrase, or a summary of the information. Fol- lowing is a sample note for a paraphrase see also sample notes for summaries, p. Jorge Collazo, executive chef for the New York City Public Schools, says that until recently the schools served breaded foods, whole milk, and white-floured breads. A blog is a site maintained by individuals or groups containing journal- type entries.

Newest entries appear first. A social news site allows users to submit news stories, articles, and videos, to share with other users of the site. The most popular items win more visibility. Use these sources of supporting material with extreme care, referencing only those that are affiliated with reputable local, regional, or national news agencies and media out- lets, or by well-known bloggers. Who is the publisher? Is the person or organization reputable? What other publi- cations has the author or organization published?

Generally, statistics drawn from government documents and scientific and academic journals are more reliable than those reported in the popular press e. As a rule, it is best to be familiar with the most recent source you can find, even when the topic is historical. See Chapter 11 for directions on how to orally credit sources in your speech. Record References as You Go To avoid losing track of sources, maintain a working bibliography as you conduct your research. See Appendix A for guidance on preparing an end-of-speech bibliography.

Find Print and Online Sources Using a Library Portal As you search for speech materials, easy access to the Internet may lead you to rely heavily or even exclusively on popular search engines such as Google or Yahoo! Library holdings are built through careful and deliberate selection processes by trained professionals. No such standards exist for popular Web search engines. TABLE They are considered part of the invisible Web—the large portion of the Web that general search engines often fail to find. Countless docu- ments and Web sites form part of the invisible Web; this is yet another reason why you should not rely solely on popular search engines for your speech sources. Search engines such as Google cannot discern the quality of information; only a human editor can do this.

Where is similar information found? Why did they do so? Will these sources be accepted by my audience as cred- ible? Distinguish among Information, Propaganda, Misinformation, and Disinformation Be alert to the quality of the information you examine. Is it reliable information, or is it propaganda, misinformation, or disinformation?

The purpose of propa- ganda is to instill a particular attitude—to encourage you to think a particular way. Military posters that encourage you to enlist are an example of propaganda. One common form of misinformation on the Inter- net is the urban legend—a fabricated story passed along by unsuspecting people. Doctored photographs and falsified profit-and-loss statements are examples of disinformation in action. The Internet is widely used for disinformation. Make the Most of Internet Search Tools To locate information on the Internet efficiently and find the best sources for your speech, you must be familiar with the function of search engines and subject Web directories.

Results are generally ranked from most to least rel- evant, though criteria for relevance vary. Individual search engines such as Google, Yahoo! Meta-search engines such as Ixquick, MetaCrawler, and Dogpile scan a variety of individual search engines simul- taneously. Note that increasingly, librarians discourage the use of meta-search engines because so many return only the top listings from each search engine and include far too many paid listings. Exam- ples of these include Scirus Science Search; Bioethics. Check government-sponsored sites such as www.

Government-sponsored sites are free of commercial taint and contain highly credible primary materials. Make sure to assess the credibility of each site, whether it is oper- ated by an individual, a company, a governmental agency, or a nonprofit group. Be wary of sites that do not include such a link. Look for contact information. Check for Currency 4 Check for a date that indicates when the page was placed on the Web and when it was last updated. Is the date current? Web sites that do not have this information may contain outdated or inaccurate information. Reputable Web sites document the sources they use. Follow any links to these sources, and apply the same criteria to them that you did to the original source document. Verify the information you find with two other independent and reputable sources.

New specialized search engines emerge continually. Directory Dir. Review its list of the Top blogs and use its engine to search for blogs on your topic. To locate information on social news sites, visit Digg or Reddit, or conduct a search for your topic e. Beware of Commercial Factors When researching your topic outside of a library portal or a virtual library, you will want to be alert to unwanted com- mercial influences on your search results — specifically, whether a listing appears merely because an advertiser has paid to put it there.

Some engines and directories accept fees from companies in exchange for a guaranteed higher ranking within results called paid placement. Others accept fees to include com- panies in the full index of possible results, without a guarantee of ranking called paid inclusion. It can be much harder to identify paid-inclusion results, however. See Consumerwebwatch. Indi- cate whether the material is a direct quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary of the information. Following is a sample note for a quotation see also sample notes for summaries, p. I know well enough what it is, provided that nobody asks me; but if I am asked what it is and try to explain, I am baffled. This indicates a paid-placement listing. Conduct Smart Searches Familiarize yourself with the features of the search tools you select.

Advanced searching also called field searching goes beyond the basic search commands to narrow results even more see Figure Record Internet Sources Because Internet sites often change, be sure to keep track of your speech sources. Record source information as you use it, either by creating footnotes with your word-processing pro- gram or with citation tools such as EndNote or RefWorks. Also see Appendix A for instructions on maintaining a working bibliography. Remem- ber, you need not credit sources for ideas that are common knowledge— established information likely to be known by many people and described in multiple places see p. Alert Listeners to Key Source Information For each source, plan on briefly alerting the audience to the following: 1.

The type of source magazine, book, personal interview, Web site, blog, online video, etc. However, keep a running list of source details for a bibliography to appear at the end of your speech draft or outline. For guidelines on creating a written bibliography for your speeches, see Appendix A. For example, they might cite the publication name and date but leave out key details that could convince the audience to accept the source as reliable and its conclusions as true. But discerning listeners will accept as legitimate the supporting materials you offer for your claims—examples, stories, testimony, facts, and statistics see Chapter 8 —only if they believe that the sources are reliable and accurate.

While a source that is reliable is usually accurate, this is not always so. For example, a soldier based in Iraq might read a news article in the Wall Street Journal about a battle in which he or she participated. The soldier knows the story contains inaccuracies because the soldier was there. In general, however, the soldier finds the Wall Street Journal a reliable source. Since even the most reliable source can sometimes be wrong, it is always better to offer a variety of sources, rather than a single source, to support a major point.

This is especially the case when your claims are controversial. For example, a politically conservative audience may reject information from a liberal publication. Thus audience analysis should factor in your choice of sources. In addition to checking that your sources are reliable, consider whether they will be seen as credible by your particular audience. On the contrary, audience members will welcome information that adds backing to your assertions. The key is to avoid a formulaic, or mechanical, delivery. You can do this by varying your wording. Listeners are more likely to trust the source if it is connected to a trusted entity. Including a source qualifier in your presenta- tion can make the difference between winning or losing acceptance for your supporting material.

BOOK Citation Elements to Mention: If two or fewer authors, state first and last names, source qualifier, title, and date of publication. Example: In a December 18, , blog posting on TechPresident. Example: In a session on mindfulness delivered on the Google campus on November 12, , and broadcast on YouTube, Jon Kabat-Zinn, scientist, author, and founding director of the Stress Reduction Clinic. Example: On July 8, , in Congressional testimony before the U. Facts that are widely disseminated and com- monly known require no attribution. Otherwise, credit the source of the fact in your speech: According to the Galileo Project Web site name , a project supported by Rice University source qualifier , Galileo was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in fact.

Mary Klein, a stem-cell researcher from the Brown University School of Medicine, echoed this sentiment when she spoke last Monday at the Public Health Committee meeting. Census Bureau, which produces national population estimates annually using the latest available data on births, deaths, and international migration, indicates that in , there was one birth every eight seconds and one death every twelve seconds in the United States. For examples of how to cite quotations, paraphrases, and summaries, see Chapter 4, pp.

Part 3 Organization The intro- duction establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience. The body of the speech presents main points that are intended to fulfill the speech purpose. Main points are developed with supporting material to fulfill this purpose. The conclusion brings closure to the speech by restating the purpose, summarizing main points, and reiter- ating why the thesis is relevant to the audience. In essence, the introduction of a speech tells listeners where they are going, the body takes them there, and the conclusion lets them know they have arrived. Chapter 15 focuses on how to create effective introduc- tions and conclusions.

In this chapter we explore the body of the speech. It consists of three elements: main points, sup- porting points, and transitions. Their func- tion is to represent each of the main elements or claims being made in support of the speech thesis. To create main points, identify the central ideas and themes of the speech. What are the most important ideas you want to convey? What is the thesis? What key ideas emerge from your research? Each of these ideas or claims should be expressed as a main point. THESIS: the central idea of the speech : When performed correctly, meditation is an effective and easy way to reduce stress. If you have too many main points, further narrow your topic or check the points for proper subordination see p.

West Texas boasts its own Grand Canyon. South Texas boasts its own desert. Each main point should be mutually exclusive of one another. If they are not, consider whether a main point more properly serves as a subpoint. Express each main point as a declarative sentence one that states a fact or argument. This emphasizes the point and alerts audience members to the main thrusts of your speech. This helps listeners understand and retain the points, and it lends power and elegance to your words. If it is especially important that listeners remember certain ideas, introduce the points near the beginning of the speech and reiterate them at the conclusion. If your goal is to inform, include details that help listeners grasp the topic.

If it is to persuade, subpoints should include compelling reasons, causes, and facts that help convince listeners to agree with you. If your goal is to entertain, appeal to humor or goodwill. Use Indentation to Arrange Supporting Points In an outline, supporting points appear in a subordinate position to main points. This is indicated by indentation. As with main points, supporting points should be arranged in order of their importance or relevance to the main point.

The most common format is the roman numeral outline. Main point A. Supporting point 1. Sub-supporting point a. Sub-sub-supporting point Here is an example in phrase outline form; see p. Subject line most important, yet neglected part of e-mail. Determines if recipient reads message 1. Needs to specify point of message 2. Determines if recipient ignores message 1. May ignore e-mail with missing subject line 2. May ignore e-mail with unclear subject line II. Use proven techniques for effective subject lines A.

Make them informative 1. Give specific details 2. Match central idea of e-mail 3. Be current B. Check for sense 1. Convey correct meaning 2. Reflect content of message C. Avoid continuing subject line in text 1. May annoy the reader 2. May be unclear a. Could be confused with spam b. Try to adhere to these principles as you arrange your speech points. Unity A speech exhibits unity when it contains only those points implied by the purpose and thesis statements. Each main point supports the thesis, and each supporting point pro- vides evidence for the main points.

Each sub-supporting point supports each supporting point. Finally, each point should focus on a single idea. The speech body should follow logically from the introduction, and the conclusion should follow logically from the body. Within the body of the speech itself, main points should follow logically from the thesis statement, and supporting points should follow logically from the main points. Transitions serve as logical bridges that help establish coherence.

To ensure coherence, adhere to the principle of co- ordination and subordination — the logical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one another. Ideas that are coordinate are given equal weight. An idea that is sub- ordinate to another is given relatively less weight. In out- lines, coordinate points are indicated by their parallel alignment and subordinate points are indicated by their indentation below the more important points. For an exam- ple, see the outline shown earlier on using effective subject lines in business-related e-mails: Coordinate points are aligned with one another, while subordinate points are indented below the points that they substantiate.

Balance The principle of balance suggests that appropriate empha- sis or weight be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme. The body of a speech should always be the longest part, and the introduction and conclusion should be of roughly the same length. Stating the main points in parallel form is one aspect of balance. Assigning each main point at least two supporting points is another. Think of a main point as a body and supporting points as legs; without at least two legs, the body cannot stand.

Transitions can take the form of full sentences, phrases, or single words. Use Transitions between Main Points When moving from one main point to another, full-sentence transitions are especially effective. Use Transitions between Supporting Points Transitions between supporting points can also be handled with full sentences. Conjunctions or phrases also called signposts such as the following can be just as effective: Next. Transitions can also be stated as rhetorical questions, or questions that do not invite actual responses. Body I. Transition: So how do you go green? Get informed—understand what is physically happening to the planet Transition: Understanding the issues is only part of going green, however.

Perhaps most importantly. Recognize that change starts here, on campus, with you. Note how the student edits himself to ensure that he 1 uses transitions to help listeners follow along and retain his speech points and 2 uses transitions strategically to achieve his goal of persuading the audience. College campuses generate the waste equivalent of many large towns. Colleges face disposal issues, especially of electronics. Administrators face decisions about mounting energy costs.

Promote a campus-wide recycling program 4 Transition: For example. Decrease the availability of bottled water and dis- posable. Insist on recycling bins at all residence hall. Encourage computer centers to recycle. Decreasing the consumption of plastic and paper, installing recycling bins, and responsibly disposing of print cartridges will make a huge difference. Another aspect of going green is using sustainable energy. Lobby administrators to investigate solar, wind, and geothermal. Explore alternative heating. Get involved at the town government level A. Town-grown committees. Speak up and voice your concerns. Conclusion I. Will contests be too expensive? Well, actually. Use Previews and Summaries as Transitions Previews are transitions that tell the audience what to expect next.

In speech introductions a preview statement briefly introduces the main points of the speech see Chapter Within the body itself, internal previews can be used to alert audience members to a shift from one main point or idea to another: Victoria Woodhull was a pioneer in many respects. Not only was she the first woman to run her own brokerage firm; she was also the first to run for the presidency of the United States, though few people know this. Similar to the internal preview, the internal summary draws together important ideas before the speaker proceeds to another speech point.

Selecting an 13 Organizational Pattern Once you have selected the main points for your speech, you must decide on the type of organizational arrangement or combination of arrangements for them. You can then pro- ceed to flesh out the points with subordinate ideas. Speeches make use of at least a dozen different arrangements of main and supporting points. Here we look at seven com- monly used patterns for all forms of speeches: chronologi- cal, spatial, causal cause-effect , problem-solution, topical, narrative, and circular.

These patterns offer an organized way to link points together to maximum effect. Arranging Speech Points Chronologically Topics that describe a series of events in time or that develop in line with a set pattern of actions or tasks lend themselves to the arrangement of main points according to their occurrence in time relative to one another. A chronological pattern of arrangement also called a temporal pattern follows the natu- ral sequential order of the main points. A speaker might describe events leading to the adoption of a peace plan, for example, or describe how to build a model car.

Do keep your main points in one pattern, but feel free to use other patterns for subpoints when it makes sense to do so. For instance, for a speech about the history of tattooing in the United States, you may choose a chronological pattern to organize the main points but use a cause-effect arrangement for some of your subpoints regarding why tattooing is on the rise today. Organization, whether of main points or subpoints, should be driven by the demands of the content. Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern When describing or explaining the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points can be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to one another.

This calls for a spatial pattern of arrangement. Visitors first encounter an abundant variety of plant life native to the high- country desert. Soon visitors come upon an age-old watering hole that has receded beneath the foot cliffs. Beyond are the famous cliff carvings made by hundreds of travelers over several centuries of exploration in the Southwest. Sales are strongest in the Eastern Zone. Sales are growing at a rate of 10 per- cent quarterly in the Central Zone. Sales are up slightly in the Mountain Zone. Examples include 1 events leading to higher interest rates, 2 reasons students drop out of college, and 3 causes of spousal abuse. The main points in a causal cause-effect pattern of arrangement usually take the following form: I.

Cause II. Cause 1 lack of funds I. Cause lack of funds II. Cause 2 unsatisfactory II. Effect 1 lowered social life earnings over lifetime III. Cause 3 unsatisfactory III. Effect 2 decreased job academic performance satisfaction over lifetime IV. Effect drop out of IV. Effect 3 increased stress college level over lifetime Some topics are best understood by presenting listeners with the effect s first and the cause or causes subsequently. Effect Two hundred and fifty-nine passengers and crew members died; an additional eleven people on the ground perished. Effect Longest-running aviation investigation in history. Cause Court found cause of explosion was a terrorist act, a bomb planted by Libyan citizen Al Megrahi.

Cause Many people believe that Megrahi did not act alone, if he acted at all. Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern The problem-solution pattern of arrangement organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solu- tion. This type of arrangement can be as general as two main points: I. Problem define what it is II. Solution offer a way to overcome the problem But many problem-solution speeches require more than two points to adequately explain the problem and to sub- stantiate the recommended solution: I.

The nature of the problem identify its causes, incidence, etc. Unsatisfactory solutions discuss those that have not worked IV. Nature of online bullying A. Types of activities involved 1. Circulation of embarrassing pictures 3. Sharing private information 4. Threats B. Incidence of bullying C. Effects of online bullying on victims A. Acting out in school B. Feeling unsafe in school C. Skipping school D. Unsuccessful attempts at solving online bullying A.

Letting offenders and victims work it out on their own B. Ways to solve online bullying A. Educate in schools B. Report incidents to authorities C. Suspend or expel offenders Arranging Speech Points Topically When each of the main points is a subtopic or category of the speech topic, try the topical pattern of arrangement also called categorical pattern.

Consider an informative speech about choosing Chicago as a place to establish a career. You plan to emphasize three reasons for choosing Chicago: the strong economic climate of the city, its cultural variety, and its accessible public transportation. Since these three points are of relatively equal importance, they can be arranged in any order without affecting one another or the speech pur- pose negatively.

Accessible transportation II. Cultural variety III. Economic stability II. You can approach a topic by dividing it into two or more categories, for example. You can lead with your strongest evidence or leave your most compelling points until you near the conclusion. If your topic does not call out for one of the other patterns described in this chapter, be sure to experiment with the topical pattern. Arranging Speech Points Using the Narrative Pattern Storytelling is often a natural and effective way to get your message across.

In the narrative organizational pattern, the speech consists of a story or series of short stories, replete with character, settings, plot, and vivid imagery. In practice, a speech built largely upon a story or series of stories is likely to incorporate elements of other designs. For example, you might organize the main points of the story in an effect-cause design, in which you first reveal why some- thing happened such as a drunken driving accident and then describe the events that led up to the accident the causes. Whatever the structure, simply telling a story is no guaran- tee of giving a good speech.

Any speech should include a clear thesis, a preview, well-organized main points, and transitions. And finally. Here, you develop one idea, which leads to another, which leads to a third, and so forth, until you arrive back at the speech thesis. Each main point leads directly to another main point, with the final main point leading back to the thesis. Use the chronological pattern of organization. Use the spatial pattern of organization. Use the causal cause-effect pattern of organization. Use the problem-solution pattern of arrangement. Use a topical pattern of arrangement. Use a narrative pattern of arrangement, perhaps in combination with another pattern. Use a cir- cular pattern of arrangement.

Outlines are critical to organizing a speech, revealing any weaknesses in the logical ordering of points and providing a blueprint for presentation. Plan on Creating Two Outlines As you develop a speech, you will actually create two out- lines: a working outline also called preparation or rough out- line and a speaking, or delivery, outline. Completed, the working outline will contain your entire speech, organized and supported to your satisfaction. The speaking outline also called a delivery outline is the one you will use when you are practicing and actually pre- senting the speech. Speaking outlines, which contain your ideas in condensed form, are much briefer than working out- lines.

Figure Use Sentences, Phrases, or Key Words Speech outlines can be created using complete sentences, phrases, or key words. Working outlines typically contain full sentences, reflecting much of the text of the speech; speaking outlines use phrases or key words. In a sentence outline, each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a declarative sentence one that makes an assertion about a subject. So too are the introduc- tion and conclusion. Often, these sentences are stated in much the same way the speaker wants to express the idea. The following is an excerpt of a working outline in sentence format from a speech by Mark B. McClellan1 on keeping prescription drugs safe: I. The prescription drug supply is under unprecedented attack from a variety of increasingly sophisticated threats.

Technologies for counterfeiting, ranging from pill molding to dyes, have improved across the board. Inadequately regulated Internet sites have become major portals for unsafe and illegal drugs. An outline that uses full sentences is not recommended because it restricts eye contact and forces the speaker to focus more on reading verbatim from the outline than on actually deliv- ering the speech. A phrase outline uses partial construction of the sentence form of each point.

Phrase outlines encourage you to become so familiar with your speech points that a glance at a few words is enough to remind you of exactly what to say. Drug supply under attack A. Counterfeiting technologies more sophisticated B. Threats A. Counterfeiting B. Internet Many speaking experts recommend using the key-word format for delivery, suggesting that less reliance on outline notes allows you increased eye contact with the audience and greater freedom of movement. This format also ensures that you are prepared and in better control of your thoughts and actions. With sufficient practice, the key words will jog your memory so that the delivery of your ideas becomes more natural.

Many classroom speaking and writing assignments require that you demonstrate your thoughts in organized fashion. On the job, employers hire people who can communicate ideas logically and convincingly, both orally and in writing. You will also make a greater impact in the community when your ideas are convincingly and compellingly arranged. No better tool exists for ensuring the logical flow of ideas in each of these arenas than that of outlining.

Once you complete the outline, prepare a bibliography. It uses the sentence format and includes labeled transitions. Imagine how you would feel if someone were tracking everything you did on the Internet, including recording your passwords and credit card numbers. Attention getter II. A type of software known as spyware can install itself on your computer without your knowledge and harvest this sensitive information. To protect yourself, you need to understand how spy- ware works. Thesis IV. BODY I. Spyware is about a decade old and appears in many guises. FTC, March Report 1. Its first link to software apparently was in con- nection with the Zone Alarm security program.

Today, the Federal Trade Commission defines spyware as any computer code that installs in your computer, gathers data from it, and sends the information back to a remote computer with- out your consent. Some types track your Web-browsing habits and sell this information to marketers. The most dangerous type, called keystroke log- ging, records and transmits keystrokes to steal such personal information as passwords and social security numbers.

Spyware is different from a virus in a variety of ways. Viruses are generally written in their own codes by individuals in order to brag about causing damage. Spyware is written by teams employed by compa- nies, not all of them shady, to make money. Viruses have been around for more than two decades; everyone agrees on how to define them; and they are illegal. Users can learn to recognize symptoms of spyware.

Signs of infiltration include a constant stream of pop- up ads, strange toolbars on the desktop, and hijacked browser settings. Files may become displaced or disappear, and the computer may crash. Spyware is the leading cause of computer-related prob- lems today. Nielson interview B. A Consumer Reports national survey finds that spyware is a leading cause of computer malfunction. Consumer Reports, 1. In , 1 in 14 computer owners experienced severe computer problems, including erased hard drives.

Keep your browser up-to-date to take advantage of security updates. Download free software only from sites you know and trust. Exercise extreme caution when surfing online. Spyware tends to be loaded onto disreputable sites containing pornography, and even on Web sites advertising spyware solutions. Beware of spyware lurking in ads on social network- ing sites such as Facebook and MySpace. Spyware can do serious damage to your computer and to your finances. Summarizes main points A. One final piece of advice is to keep abreast of devel- opments related to spyware by reading reputable computer publications such as PC Magazine and visiting reputable Web sites such as CNET.

Leaves audience with something to think about II. Forewarned is forearmed. Good luck. Retrieved August 8, , from www. Retrieved August 9, , from reviews. This lets us find the most appropriate writer for any type of assignment. With our money back guarantee, our customers have the right to request and get a refund at any stage of their order in case something goes wrong.

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