⒈ The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay

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The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay

Gardner, Janet E. JSTOR Due to their involvement in this The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay garde cultural movement, the The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay lost their jobs and were The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay by the incumbent government. By borrowing from and incorporating the non-written oral My Dearest Winnifred Death Monologue The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay folk The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay of the African diaspora, African-American literature broke "the mystique The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay connection between literary authority The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay patriarchal power. Use our articles on personificationimageryrhetorical devicespoint of The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essayliterary elementsThe Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essayand iambic pentameter to Impact Of Europeans On Native Americans you in your quest. Politics social issues art humor culture. Lessing soon became The Namesake By Jhumpa Lahiri Essay dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently Nellie Mcclung Research Paper right through the century, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in

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The Wars. Toronto: Penguin, Gardner, Janet E. Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake. Boston: Mariner, Stott, Jon C. Jones, eds. The Harbrace Anthology of Short Fiction. Toronto: Nelson Education, Full information about Challenge for Credit can be found in the Undergraduate Calendar. To receive credit for the ENGL challenge registration, you must achieve a grade of at least 50 per cent on the examination and a grade of at least D 50 percent overall.

Athabasca University reserves the right to amend course outlines occasionally and without notice. Courses offered by other delivery methods may vary from their individualized-study counterparts. The philosophy came to be known as Garveyism. Against advocates of literature that promoted African racial solidarity in accordance with negritude principles, Frantz Fanon argued for a national literature aimed at achieving national liberation. Rather, he argued that black cultural forms—including literature—were diasporic and transnational formations born out of the common historical and geographical effects of transatlantic slavery.

The "anti-conquest narrative" recasts the indigenous inhabitants of colonized countries as victims rather than foes of the colonisers. In her book Imperial Eyes, Mary Louise Pratt analyzes the strategies by which European travel writing portrays Europe as a secure home space against a contrasting representation of colonized outsiders. She proposes a completely different theorization of "anti-conquest" than the ideas discussed here, one that can be traced to Edward Said.

Instead of referring to how natives resist colonization or are victims of it, Pratt analyzes texts in which a European narrates his adventures and struggles to survive in the land of the non-European Other. This different notion of anti-conquest is used to analyze the ways in which colonialism and colonization are legitimized through stories of survival and adventure that purport to inform or entertain. Pratt created this unique notion in association with concepts of contact zone and transculturation , which have been very well received in Latin America social and human science circles.

Postcolonial feminism emerged as a response to the Eurocentric focus of feminism. It accounts for the way that racism and the long-lasting political, economic, and cultural effects of colonialism affect non-white, non-Western women in the postcolonial world. Rather, it seeks to act as an intervention that changes the assumptions of both postcolonial and feminist studies. Common themes include women's roles in globalized societies and the impact of mass migration to metropolitan urban centers. The Pacific Islands comprise 20, to 30, islands in the Pacific Ocean. Depending on the context, it may refer to countries and islands with common Austronesian origins, islands once or currently colonized, or Oceania.

There is a burgeoning group of young pacific writers who respond and speak to the contemporary Pasifika experience, including writers Lani Wendt Young , Courtney Sina Meredith and Selina Tusitala Marsh. Reclamation of culture, loss of culture, diaspora , all themes common to postcolonial literature, are present within the collective Pacific writers. Among his works is Leaves of the Banyan Tree He is of German heritage through his paternal great-grandfather, which is reflected in some of his poems. However, he does not explicitly deny his German heritage.

Figiel's greatest influence and inspiration in her career is the Samoan novelist and poet, Albert Wendt. At the point of the first colonization of Australia from , Indigenous Australians Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had not developed a system of writing, so the first literary accounts of Aboriginal peoples come from the journals of early European explorers, which contain descriptions of first contact, both violent and friendly. While his father, James Unaipon c. Oodgeroo Noonuccal born Kath Walker, — was an Australian poet, political activist, artist and educator. She was also a campaigner for Aboriginal rights. Sally Morgan 's novel My Place was considered a breakthrough memoir in terms of bringing Indigenous stories to wider notice.

The voices of Indigenous Australians continue to be increasingly noticed, and include the playwright Jack Davis and Kevin Gilbert. Alexis Wright won the award in for her novel Carpentaria. Many notable works have been written by non-Indigenous Australians on Aboriginal themes. The narrative is told from European and Aboriginal points of view. She initially wrote about her African experiences. Lessing soon became a dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently publishing right through the century, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in Yvonne Vera — was an author from Zimbabwe. Her novels are known for their poetic prose, difficult subject-matter, and their strong women characters, and are firmly rooted in Zimbabwe's difficult past.

Tsitsi Dangarembga born is a notable Zimbabwean author and filmmaker. His work includes novels, plays, short stories, and essays, ranging from literary and social criticism to children's literature. Bate Besong — was a Cameroonian playwright, poet and critic, who was described by Pierre Fandio as "one of the most representative and regular writers of what might be referred to as the second generation of the emergent Cameroonian literature in English".

Nigerian author Chinua Achebe — gained worldwide attention for Things Fall Apart in the late s. Achebe wrote his novels in English and defended the use of English, a "language of colonisers", in African literature. A titled Igbo chieftain himself, [60] Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of Western and traditional African values during and after the colonial era. His style relies heavily on the Igbo oral tradition, and combines straightforward narration with representations of folk stories, proverbs, and oratory. He also published a number of short stories, children's books, and essay collections.

Wole Soyinka born is a playwright and poet, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature , [61] the first African to be honored in that category. Soyinka was born into a Yoruba family in Abeokuta. He went on to write plays that were produced in both countries, in theatres and on radio. He took an active role in Nigeria's political history and its campaign for independence from British colonial rule. In , he seized the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service studio and broadcast a demand for the cancellation of the Western Nigeria Regional Elections.

In during the Nigerian Civil War , he was arrested by the federak government of General Yakubu Gowon and put in solitary confinement for two years. Much of his writing has been concerned with "the oppressive boot and the irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears it". Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie born is a novelist, nonfiction writer and short story writer. Her themes of child slavery, motherhood, female independence and freedom through education won her considerable critical acclaim and honours. Elleke Boehmer [66] [ full citation needed ] writes, "Nationalism, like patriarchy, favours singleness—one identity, one growth pattern, one birth and blood for all Gerrit Olivier notes, "While it is not unusual to hear academics and politicians talk about a 'South African literature', the situation at ground level is characterised by diversity and even fragmentation".

These cultures have all retained autonomy to some extent, making a compilation such as the controversial Southern African Literatures by Michael Chapman , difficult. Chapman raises the question:. Any definitive literary history of South Africa should, it could be argued, discuss literature produced in all eleven languages. But the only literature ever to adopt characteristics that can be said to be "national" is Afrikaans. Olivier argues: "Of all the literatures in South Africa, Afrikaans literature has been the only one to have become a national literature in the sense that it developed a clear image of itself as a separate entity, and that by way of institutional entrenchment through teaching, distribution, a review culture, journals, etc.

South Africa's borders were established during the colonial era and, as with all other colonies, these borders were drawn without regard for the people living within them. Therefore: in a history of South African literature, do we include all Tswana writers, or only the ones with South African citizenship? Chapman bypasses this problem by including "Southern" African literatures. The second problem with the African languages is accessibility, because since the African languages are regional languages, none of them can claim the readership on a national scale comparable to Afrikaans and English.

Sotho, for instance, while transgressing the national borders of the RSA, is on the other hand mainly spoken in the Free State , and bears a great amount of relation to the language of Natal for example, Zulu. So the language cannot claim a national readership, while on the other hand being "international" in the sense that it transgresses the national borders. Olivier argues that "There is no obvious reason why it should be unhealthy or abnormal for different literatures to co-exist in one country, each possessing its own infrastructure and allowing theoreticians to develop impressive theories about polysystems". It is unrealistic to ever think of South Africa and South African literature as homogenous, now or in the near or distant future, since the only reason it is a country at all is the interference of European colonial powers.

This is not a racial issue, but rather has to do with culture, heritage and tradition and indeed the constitution celebrates diversity. Rather, it seems more sensible to discuss South African literature as literature produced within the national borders by the different cultures and language groups inhabiting these borders. Otherwise the danger is emphasising one literary system at the expense of another, and more often than not, the beneficiary is English, with the African languages being ignored. The distinction "black" and "white" literature is further a remnant of colonialism that should be replaced by drawing distinctions between literary systems based on language affiliation rather than race.

The first texts produced by black authors were often inspired by missionaries and frequently deal with African history, in particular the history of kings such as Chaka. Modern South African writing in the African languages tends to play at writing realistically, at providing a mirror to society, and depicts the conflicts between rural and urban settings, between traditional and modern norms, racial conflicts and most recently, the problem of AIDS.

In the first half of the 20th century, epics largely dominated black writing: historical novels, such as Sol T. Dhlomo , or heroic epic poetry such as the work of Mazizi Kunene. Coetzee , and Wilbur Smith. Naipaul , and George Lamming began to be published in the United Kingdom. Many — perhaps most — West Indian writers have found it necessary to leave their home territories and base themselves in the United Kingdom , the United States , or Canada in order to make a living from their work—in some cases spending the greater parts of their careers away from the territories of their birth.

Critics in their adopted territories might argue that, for instance, V. Naipaul ought to be considered a British writer instead of a Trinidadian writer, or Jamaica Kincaid and Paule Marshall American writers, but most West Indian readers and critics still consider these writers "West Indian". West Indian literature ranges over subjects and themes as wide as those of any other "national" literature, but in general many West Indian writers share a special concern with questions of identity, ethnicity, and language that rise out of the Caribbean historical experience.

One unique and pervasive characteristic of Caribbean literature is the use of " dialect " forms of the national language, often termed creole. The various local variations in the European languages which became established in the West Indies during the period of European colonial rule. These languages have been modified over the years within each country and each has developed a blend that is unique to their country. Many Caribbean authors in their writing switch liberally between the local variation — now commonly termed nation language — and the standard form of the language. Lucia, resident mostly in Trinidad during the s and '70s, and partly in the United States since then; and V.

Naipaul , born in Trinidad and resident in the United Kingdom since the Sekou from St. The novel deals with themes of women living in a patriarchal society, race, and assimilation. The novel has been adapted for stage, film and radio numerous times, most recently as a radio play by BBC Radio 4. Earl Lovelace born is a Trinidadian novelist, journalist, playwright, and short story writer. He is particularly recognized for his descriptive, dramatic fiction on Trinidadian culture: "Using Trinidadian dialect patterns and standard English, he probes the paradoxes often inherent in social change as well as the clash between rural and urban cultures.

Most writers leave to find support for their literary endeavours elsewhere and this, arguably, shapes the literature, especially after long periods of exile. But Lovelace's fiction is deeply embedded in Trinidadian society and is written from the perspective of one whose ties to his homeland have never been broken. American David Henry Hwang 's play M. Butterfly addresses the Western perspective on China and the French as well as the American perspectives on Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

It was inspired by Giacomo Puccini 's opera Madama Butterfly. Maxine Hong Kingston born is a Chinese American author who has written three novels and several works of non-fiction about the experiences of Chinese immigrants living in the United States. Bharati Mukherjee although of East Indian ancestry has gone on record that she considers herself an American writer , and not an Indian expatriate writer. In a interview with Amanda Meer, Mukherjee said: "I totally consider myself an American writer, and that has been my big battle: to get to realize that my roots as a writer are no longer, if they ever were, among Indian writers, but that I am writing about the territory about the feelings, of a new kind of pioneer here in America.

Most Indian writers prior to this, have still thought of themselves as Indians, and their literary inspiration, has come from India. India has been the source, and home. Jhumpa Lahiri born is an Indian-American author. Lahiri's debut short story collection Interpreter of Maladies won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction , and her first novel, The Namesake , was adapted into the popular film of the same name. Throughout American history, African Americans have been discriminated against and subject to racist attitudes. This experience inspired some Black writers, at least during the early years of African-American literature , to prove they were the equals of European-American authors.

As Henry Louis Gates, Jr , has said, "it is fair to describe the subtext of the history of black letters as this urge to refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were bearers of an inferior culture. By refuting the claims of the dominant culture, African-American writers were also attempting to subvert the literary and power traditions of the United States. Some scholars assert that writing has traditionally been seen as "something defined by the dominant culture as a white male activity. By borrowing from and incorporating the non-written oral traditions and folk life of the African diaspora, African-American literature broke "the mystique of connection between literary authority and patriarchal power.

This view of African-American literature as a tool in the struggle for Black political and cultural liberation has been stated for decades, perhaps most famously by W. Du Bois. The Canadian writer Margaret Atwood is a post-colonial writer who dealt with themes of identity-seeking through her Southern Ontario Gothic style of writing. Canadian Michael Ondaatje , is an internationally acclaimed author with Sri Lankan roots, which he has explored in works like Running in the Family and The Cat's Table Cyril Dabydeen born is a Guyana -born, Canadian writer of Indian descent.

He grew up in a sugar plantation with the sense of Indian indenture rooted in his family background. In the decade Canadian Indigenous writers published so many works that some critics called it a renaissance. Canadian scholar, Joseph Pivato has promoted the study of ethnic minority authors with Comparative Literature for the New Century Said published his most famous work, Orientalism , discussing the depiction of Asia by the Western world. Mahfouz was inspired to write in a large part by his experiences during the Egyptian Revolution of when he was seven years old , including witnessing British soldiers firing on crowds of demonstrators in an effort to disperse them; according to Mahfouz, "You could say Philippine literature includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines.

Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature were actually epics passed on from generation to generation originally through oral tradition. However, wealthy families, especially in Mindanao were able to keep transcribed copies of these epics as family heirloom. Score on SAT Reading. Score on SAT Writing. What ACT target score should you be aiming for? How to Get a Perfect 4. How to Write an Amazing College Essay. A Comprehensive Guide. Choose Your Test. Posted by Dr.

Anna Wulick Nov 4, AM. What Do Colleges Expect? How Can I Exceed Expectations? Honors Classes These will most likely be similar to the standard classes your school offers, but the works you read will be more challenging and the assignments more complex and demanding. Pro tip: in your school, honors classes may be a prerequisite for AP classes. Is There More? Design Your Own Course Your school is your resource, so don't be afraid to get creative. Take High School Classes Online For instance, Stanford University has an online high school which features 7 English courses and lets you enroll to take as many of them as you want. Take Summer Classes on College Campuses You can check out our guide to the Summer Institute for the Gifted or all the info we have collected about Stanford's two summer programs.

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