✯✯✯ Henrietta Lacks Arguments Against Euthanasia

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Henrietta Lacks Arguments Against Euthanasia

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Five Arguments Against Euthanasia

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Best Essays. Show More. More Essays. New on IPL. Popular Topics. Global Warming. Social Media. The Great Gatsby. Police Brutality. To Kill a Mockingbird. Fake News. Genetically Modified Food. Negative Effects Of Depression. Gun Control. The Schindlers were allowed to choose two doctors to present findings at an evidentiary hearing while Schiavo could introduce two rebuttal experts. Finally, the trial court itself would appoint a new independent physician to examine and evaluate Terri Schiavo's condition. These decisions, all published in a single order by the Florida Second District Court of Appeal, [33] came to be known by the court as Schiavo III in its later rulings. In October , on remand by the Second District Court of Appeal, an evidentiary hearing was held in Judge Greer's court to determine whether new therapy treatments could help Terri Schiavo restore any cognitive function.

In preparation for the trial, a new computed axial tomography scan CAT scan was performed, which showed severe cerebral atrophy. An EEG showed no measurable brain activity. The five doctors examined Terri Schiavo's medical records, brain scans, the videos, and Terri herself. Cranford, Greer, and Bambakidis testified that Terri Schiavo was in a persistent vegetative state. Maxfield and Hammesfahr testified that she was in a minimally conscious state. As part of the court-ordered medical exam, six hours of video of Terri Schiavo were taped and filed at the Pinellas County courthouse.

The tape included Terri Schiavo with her mother and neurologist William Hammesfahr. The entire tape was viewed by Judge Greer, who wrote, Terri "clearly does not consistently respond to her mother". From that six hours of video, the Schindlers and their supporters produced six video clips intended to support their case, totaling less than six minutes, and released those clips to public websites. The trial court order was particularly critical of Hammesfahr's testimony, which claimed positive results in similar cases by use of Vasodilation therapy, the success of which is unsupported in the medical literature. Around the start of , the Schindlers began to create more publicity by lobbying for their case to keep their daughter alive.

On September 11, , the Schindlers petitioned the court to forestall removal of the feeding tube in order to provide for "eight weeks' therapy". Accompanying the petition were four affidavits from members of the Schindler family and one from Dr. Alexander T. At the hearing, the Schindlers' counsel read into the record additional affidavits from three speech professionals and two nurses. In particular, nurse Carla Sauer Iyer asserted that she was able to feed Terri Schiavo orally but that Michael characterized any such interaction as "therapy" and ordered her not to do so. Iyer claimed in her affidavit that her initial training in consisted solely of the instruction, "Do what Michael Schiavo tells you or you're terminated," and that standing orders were not to contact the Schindler family, but that she "would call them anyway".

Schindler to re-litigate the entire case. It is not even a veiled or disguised attempt. The exhibits relied upon by them, clearly demonstrate this to be true. Iyer details what amounts to a month cover-up from April through July , which include the staff of Palm Garden of Largo Convalescent Center, the Guardian of the Person, the guardian ad litem , the medical professionals, the police and, believe it or not, Mr. It is impossible to believe that Mr. Schindler would not have subpoenaed Ms. Iyer for the January evidentiary hearing had Iyer contacted them in as her affidavit alleges. On October 15, , Schiavo's feeding tube was removed. Within a week, when the Schindlers' final appeal was exhausted, State Rep. Frank Attkisson and the Florida Legislature passed "Terri's Law" in an emergency session giving Governor Jeb Bush the authority to intervene in the case.

Governor Bush immediately ordered the feeding tube reinserted. She was taken to Morton Plant Rehabilitation Hospital in Clearwater, where her feeding tube was surgically reinserted. Part of the legislation required the appointment of a guardian ad litem GAL , Jay Wolfson, to "deduce and represent the best wishes and best interests" of Schiavo, and report them to Governor Bush. Wolfson's report did not change Michael's role as her legal guardian and did not otherwise obstruct him legally.

At the same time, Robert and Mary Schindler, her parents, attempted to intervene and participate in the "Terri's Law" case but were denied by Judge W. On May 5, , Baird found "Terri's Law" unconstitutional , and struck it down. The Florida Supreme Court then overturned the law as unconstitutional. On February 23, , the Schindlers filed a motion for relief from judgment pending medical evaluations. The motion was accompanied by thirty-three affidavits from doctors in several specialties, speech-language pathologists and therapists, and a few neuropsychologists, all urging that new tests be undertaken.

On February 28, , the Schindlers filed a motion, asking for permission to attempt to provide Schiavo with "Food and Water by Natural Means". This second motion asked for permission to "attempt to feed" Schiavo by mouth. The same declarations are being used for both motions and the motion appears to be an alternative pleading to the previous motion. Both are asking for an experimental procedure. Greer noted that "most of the doctor affidavits submitted are based on their understanding of Schiavo's condition from news reports or video clips they have seen.

Many are obviously not aware of the medical exams undertaken for the trial. Following Greer's order on March 18, , to remove the feeding tube, Republicans in the United States Congress subpoenaed both Michael and Terri Schiavo to testify at a congressional hearing. Bush and Congressional Republicans anticipated Greer's adverse ruling well before it was delivered and worked on a daily basis to find an alternative means of overturning the legal process by utilizing the authority of the United States Congress.

On March 20, , the Senate, by unanimous consent , passed their version of a relief bill; since the vote was taken by voice vote, there was no official tally of those voting in favor and those opposed. Soon after Senate approval, the House of Representatives passed an identical version of the bill S. The bill passed the House on March 21, , at a. Bush flew to Washington, D. Harkin had worked with disability rights groups for years and co-authored the Americans with Disabilities Act.

As in the state courts, all of the Schindlers' federal petitions and appeals were denied, and the U. Supreme Court declined to grant certiorari , effectively ending the Schindlers' judicial options. At the same time, the so-called Schiavo memo surfaced, causing a political firestorm. It suggested the Schiavo case offered "a great political issue" that would appeal to the party's base core supporters and could be used against Senator Bill Nelson , a Democrat from Florida , because he had refused to co-sponsor the bill. Republican majority leader and physician Bill Frist opposed the removal of her feeding tube and in a speech delivered on the Senate Floor, challenged the diagnosis of Schiavo's physicians of Schiavo being in a persistent vegetative state PVS : "I question it based on a review of the video footage which I spent an hour or so looking at last night in my office.

On March 24, , Judge Greer denied a petition for intervention by the Florida Department of Children and Families DCF and signed an order forbidding the department from "taking possession of Theresa Marie Schiavo or removing her" from the hospice and directed "each and every and singular sheriff of the state of Florida" to enforce his order. The order was appealed to the Second District Court of Appeals the following day, which resulted in an automatic stay under state law. While the stay was in effect, Florida Department of Law Enforcement personnel prepared to take custody of Terri Schiavo and transfer her to a local hospital for reinsertion of the feeding tube. Once Greer was made aware of the stay, he ordered it lifted and all parties stood down.

Governor Bush decided to obey the court order despite enormous pressure from the political right. In jest, one official said local police discussed "whether we had enough officers to hold off the National Guard". Terri Schiavo died at a Pinellas Park hospice on March 31, Although there was concern that Schiavo would experience significant symptoms from dehydration with the removal of the feeding tube, studies have shown that patients who have their feeding tubes removed usually have a peaceful death. The autopsy occurred on April 1, , and revealed extensive brain damage. The manner of death was certified as "undetermined".

In addition to consultation with a neuropathologist Stephen J. Nelson , Thogmartin also arranged for specialized cardiac and genetic examinations to be made. The official autopsy report [28] was released on June 15, In addition to studying Terri Schiavo's remains, Thogmartin scoured court, medical and other records and interviewed her family members, doctors and other relevant parties. Examination of Schiavo's nervous system by neuropathologist Stephen J. Nelson, revealed extensive injury. The brain itself weighed only g Microscopic examination revealed extensive damage to nearly all brain regions , including the cerebral cortex , the thalamus , the basal ganglia , the hippocampus , the cerebellum , and the midbrain.

The neuropathologic changes in her brain were precisely of the type seen in patients who enter a PVS following cardiac arrest. The pattern of damage to the cortex, with injury tending to worsen from the front of the cortex to the back, was also typical. There was marked damage to important relay circuits deep in the brain the thalamus — another common pathologic finding in cases of PVS. The damage was, in the words of Thogmartin, "irreversible, and no amount of therapy or treatment would have regenerated the massive loss of neurons". The cardiac pathologist who studied Schiavo's heart found it and the coronary vessels to be healthy, which excludes the possibility that her initial collapse was the result of myocardial infarction , although there was a localized area of healed inflammation opening the possibility of myocarditis.

Thogmartin found that "there was no proof that Terri Schiavo ever had an eating disorder such as bulimia. Schiavo on the day of, in the days after, or in the months after her initial collapse. Indeed, within an hour of her initial hospital admission, radiographic examination of her cervical spine was negative. Autopsy examination of her neck structures 15 years after her initial collapse did not detect any signs of remote trauma, but, with such a delay, the exam was unlikely to show any residual neck findings. Regarding the cause and manner of Schiavo's death, Thogmartin wrote, "Mrs. Schiavo suffered severe anoxic brain injury.

The cause of which cannot be determined with reasonable medical certainty. The manner of death will therefore be certified as undetermined. Schiavo's body was cremated. Father Frank Pavone , the founder of the Priests for Life anti-abortion organization, [68] delivered the main homily. On May 7, Schiavo's parents made public a complaint that they had not been informed of when and where the ashes of their daughter had been or were to be buried by Michael Schiavo.

He was under court order to provide this information to them. On June 20, the cremated remains of Terri Schiavo were buried. The Schindlers' attorney stated that the family was notified by fax only after the memorial service; by then, the family had already started getting calls from reporters. The Schiavo case has been compared to the Karen Ann Quinlan case and Nancy Cruzan case , two landmark right-to-die cases.

She died of pneumonia in Cruzan's family did not have enough evidence of that, but later produced more. She died after being removed from life support in The "Terri Schiavo case" actually refers to a series of cases. It differed from the Quinlan and Cruzan cases by involving settled law rather than breaking new legal ground on the right-to-die issue. In , Shepherd said that it was "unclear" whether the Schiavo case represents a landmark decision.

According to medical ethicist Matthew Stonecipher, "The movement to challenge the decisions made for Terri Schiavo threatened to destabilize end-of-life law that had developed over the last quarter of the 20th century, principally through the cases of Karen Ann Quinlan and Nancy Cruzan. Felos successfully argued before the Florida Supreme Court that Browning's feeding tube should be removed. The elderly Browning had expressed, in a living will, her wish not to be kept alive by any artificial means, including receiving food and water "by a gastric tube or intravenously". At that time, it was common to remove people from ventilators, but the law in Florida was not clear on removing them from feeding tubes. In a landmark ruling, the Florida Supreme Court decided that Browning had "the constitutional right to choose or refuse medical treatment, and that right extends to all relevant decisions concerning one's health".

During the years of legal proceedings, disability rights groups and activists closely monitored and involved themselves in the case. In March , twelve disability rights groups, led by Not Dead Yet , along with four other amici filed an amicus curiae brief in which they opposed the removal of Schiavo's feeding tube. The Palm Sunday Compromise granted the federal review they sought, but it was limited to only the Schiavo case. The seven-year case generated a great deal of public attention and activism.

The protests were described as loud but non-violent. There were dozens of arrests, with most being for crossing a police line with water for Schiavo. Two polls conducted shortly after Schiavo's feeding tube was removed for the final time in showed that a large majority of Americans believed that Michael Schiavo should have had the authority to make decisions on behalf of his wife, Terri, and that the United States Congress overstepped its bounds with its intervention in the case.

Since Terri Schiavo's death in March , her family and Michael Schiavo have clashed a number of times. Each side has also worked to promote their own causes related to the case. In April , the families disagreed over Schiavo's burial. The Schindlers had wanted her body to be buried in Florida, while Michael Schiavo said at the time that he would cremate her body and then have her ashes buried in her home state of Pennsylvania. The words "I kept my promise" were included on the marker, referring to his promise to follow what he said was her wish not to be kept alive artificially.

The statement angered the Schindlers. It was formed to raise money to support right-to-die candidates and oppose candidates who had voted for government involvement in the Schiavo case. The Schindlers continued operation of the Terri Schindler Schiavo Foundation, with a new goal of helping individuals in situations similar to Terri's. In April , Michael Schiavo charged that the Schindlers were improperly using Terri's name, as he held the rights to it, and that the family was using the foundation in order to make money. Their attorney said the foundation does its work effectively and that the high percentage for salaries was due to the small amount of money the foundation raises.

He also said that the Schindlers had the right to use Terri's name as she is a public figure. In , both Michael Schiavo and the Schindlers released books telling their sides of the story. Despite the extended emotion-laden legal struggle, the case broke no new legal ground: it remains settled law that the spouse is the next of kin in decisions where the patient is incompetent. However, it is now more generally recognized that the next of kin's decisions should be carried out in a timely fashion, even on matters of life and death. The case has raised public awareness of the value of having an advance medical directive. At the ten year anniversary of Schiavo's death, several news sources offered retrospectives on the case, some still attempting to explain how this particular case became so notable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American right-to-die legal case. Pinellas Park , Florida , U. Michael Schiavo. The black area is liquid, indicating hydrocephalus ex vacuo. Main article: Government involvement in the Terri Schiavo case. Main article: Palm Sunday Compromise. Main article: Public opinion and activism in the Terri Schiavo case. Tampa Tribune.

Archived from the original on March 20, Retrieved February 17, The University of Miami Ethics Programs. Archived from the original on November 16, Ethics look at principles and a set of concepts that help monitor and determine behaviours that may either help or harm people. Ethics is. While there are some physicians who are against the legalization of PAS , because they say it goes against the Medical Code of Ethics, there are some physicians who believe it is better that they assist the terminally ill who wish to commit suicide, because if they do not, the patient may attempt suicide on his or her own, which can lead to more complications.

Using medications to terminate a life can be very difficult. The dosage and timing of when the drug is administrated is critical, especially when taken orally. Because failed attempts may cause greater trauma than death itself for the patient, the patient may beg their caregiver to help them, in completing their failed attempt at ending their life. It is for these reasons that some physicians. Get Access. Ethical Issues in Healthcare Words 5 Pages Ethics Issues in Healthcare Technological and scientific advancement have become areas of great exponential change in the last century.

Read More. Should Medicine Be A Self Regulating Profession Words 6 Pages go through a series of changes that adapt to their changing social and political environments. Medical Marijuana Should Be Legal Words 9 Pages Medical marijuana use can greatly increase many patients lives tremendously, who have been suffering for too long. Written Analysis : Law And Ethics Words 7 Pages Written Analysis — Law and Ethics Since we were kids and became conscious of our surrounding, our parents and grandparents instilled in us an awareness of what is right and wrong.

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Lewiston Maine. Retrieved November 27, Henrietta Lacks Arguments Against Euthanasia Press release.

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