⚡ What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay
What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay advance only slowed down as they encountered regrouped and entrenched German troops in the Vosges Mountains. Part of a series on the. These were built in anticipation of an Allied invasion of France. The death rate of Western prisoners was In the related footnote he writes the following: "The What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay specific figures available are from NMC Code Of Competence In Nursing Care WEST for the period 2 June — 10 April as follows: Dead, 80,; wounded, ,; missing, ,; total,What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay minorities thought to be collaborators were forced into exile. What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay also appealed to What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay Russian Orthodox church.
Causes of World War 1 Essay
In doing so, the Germans beat the Allies to the punch; the Allies had been planning an amphibious landing in which they could begin to surround Germany, cutting off her supply of raw materials from Sweden. However, when the Allies made a counter-landing in Norway following the German invasion, the Germans repulsed them and defeated the Norwegian armed forces, driving the latter into exile. The Kriegsmarine , nonetheless, suffered very heavy losses during the two months of fighting required to seize all of mainland Norway.
In May , the Germans launched the Battle of France. The Western Allies primarily the French, Belgian and British land forces soon collapsed under the onslaught of the so-called " blitzkrieg " strategy. The majority of the British and elements of the French forces escaped at Dunkirk. With the fighting ended, the Germans began to consider ways of resolving the question of how to deal with Britain. If the British refused to agree to a peace treaty, one option was to invade. However, Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine , had suffered serious losses in Norway, and in order to even consider an amphibious landing , Germany's Air Force the Luftwaffe had to first gain air superiority or air supremacy.
While the majority of the German army was mustered for the invasion of the Soviet Union , construction began on the Atlantic Wall — a series of defensive fortifications along the French coast of the English Channel. These were built in anticipation of an Allied invasion of France. Because of the massive logistical obstacles a cross-channel invasion would face, the Allied high command decided to conduct a practice attack against the French coast. Most of the troops were Canadian, with some British contingents and a small American and Free French presence along with British and Polish naval support.
The raid was a disaster, almost two-thirds of the attacking force became casualties. However, much was learned as a result of the operation — these lessons would be put to good use in the subsequent invasion. The bulk of the Allied armies were occupied in the Mediterranean , seeking to clear the sea lanes to the Indian Ocean and capture the Foggia Airfield Complex. This instance of tying prisoner's hands contributed to Hitler's decision to issue his Commando Order instructing that all captured Commandos or Commando-type personnel were to be executed as a matter of procedure.
By the summer of , when an expectation of an Allied invasion was freely admitted by German commanders, the disposition of troops facing it came under the command of OB West HQ in Paris. It was not possible to predict where the Allies might choose to launch their invasion. The chance of an amphibious landing necessitated the substantial dispersal of the German mobile reserves, which contained the majority of their panzer troops. Each army group was allocated its mobile reserves. Army Group G, considering the possibility of an invasion on the Atlantic coast, had dispersed its mobile reserves, locating the 11th Panzer Division in Gironde , the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich refitting around the southern French town of Montauban , and the 9th Panzer Division stationed in the Rhone delta area.
The deception plans, Operation Fortitude and Operation Bodyguard , had the Germans convinced that the invasion would occur in the Pas-de-Calais , while the real target was Normandy. Following two months of slow fighting in hedgerow country, Operation Cobra allowed the Americans to break out at the western end of the lodgement. Soon after, the Allies were racing across France. They encircled around , Germans in the Falaise Pocket. As had so often happened on the Eastern Front Hitler refused to allow a strategic withdrawal until it was too late. Approximately , Germans were able to escape from the Falaise pocket, but they left behind most of their irreplaceable equipment and 50, Germans were killed or taken prisoner. The Allies had been arguing about whether to advance on a broad-front or a narrow-front from before D-Day.
However, as the breakout took place during Operation Cobra at the western end of the bridge-head, the 21st Army Group that included the British and Canadian forces swung east and headed for Belgium, the Netherlands and Northern Germany, while the U. Twelfth Army Group advanced to their south via eastern France, Luxembourg and the Ruhr Area , rapidly fanning out into a broad front. Eisenhower , and most of the American high command, it was soon adopted. Their advance only slowed down as they encountered regrouped and entrenched German troops in the Vosges Mountains. Under the onslaught in both the north and south of France, the German Army fell back.
On 19 August, the French Resistance FFI organised a general uprising and the liberation of Paris took place on 25 August when general Dietrich von Choltitz accepted the French ultimatum and surrendered to general Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque , commander of the Free French 2nd Armored Division , ignoring orders from Hitler that Paris should be held to the last and destroyed. The liberation of northern France and the Benelux countries was of special significance for the inhabitants of London and the southeast of England because it denied the Germans launch sites for their mobile V-1 and V-2 Vergeltungswaffen reprisal weapons.
As the Allies advanced across France, their supply lines stretched to breaking point. The Red Ball Express , the Allied trucking effort, was simply unable to transport enough supplies from the port facilities in Normandy all the way to the front line, which by September, was close to the German border. Major German units in the French southwest that had not been committed in Normandy withdrew, either eastwards towards Alsace sometimes directly across the US 6th Army Group's advance or into the ports with the intention of denying them to the Allies. These latter groups were not thought worth much effort and were left "to rot", with the exception of Bordeaux , which was liberated in May by French forces under General Edgard de Larminat Operation Venerable.
Fighting on the Western front seemed to stabilize, and the Allied advance stalled in front of the Siegfried Line Westwall and the southern reaches of the Rhine. Starting in early September, the Americans began slow and bloody fighting through the Hurtgen Forest " Passchendaele with tree bursts "— Hemingway to breach the Line. However, it lay at the end of the long Scheldt Estuary , and so it could not be used until its approaches were clear of heavily fortified German positions.
The Breskens pocket on the southern bank of the Scheldt was cleared with heavy casualties by allied forces in Operation Switchback , during the Battle of the Scheldt. This was followed by a tedious campaign to clear a peninsula dominating the estuary, and finally, the amphibious assault on Walcheren Island in November. The campaign to clear the Scheldt Estuary along with Operation Pheasant was a decisive victory for the Allies, as it allowed a greatly improved delivery of supplies directly from Antwerp, which was far closer to the front than the Normandy beaches. In October the Americans decided that they could not just invest Aachen and let it fall in a slow siege, because it threatened the flanks of the U. Ninth Army. As it was the first major German city to face capture, Hitler ordered that the city be held at all costs.
In the resulting battle , the city was taken, at a cost of 5, casualties on both sides, with an additional 5, German prisoners. South of the Ardennes , American forces fought from September until mid-December to push the Germans out of Lorraine and from behind the Siegfried Line. The crossing of the Moselle River and the capture of the fortress of Metz proved difficult for the American troops in the face of German reinforcements, supply shortages, and unfavorable weather. Seventh Army and French First Army fought a difficult campaign through the Vosges Mountains that was marked by dogged German resistance and slow advances.
In November, however, the German front snapped under the pressure, resulting in sudden Allied advances that liberated Belfort , Mulhouse , and Strasbourg , and placed Allied forces along the Rhine River. The Germans managed to hold a large bridgehead the Colmar Pocket , on the western bank of the Rhine and centered around the city of Colmar. On 16 November the Allies started a large scale autumn offensive called Operation Queen. The Allied operations were then succeeded by the German Ardennes offensive.
Airborne troops would fly in from the United Kingdom and take bridges over the main rivers of the German-occupied Netherlands in three main cities; Eindhoven , Nijmegen , and Arnhem. XXX Corps was able to advance beyond six of the seven airborne-held bridges but was unable to link up with the troops near the bridge over the Rhine at Arnhem. The result was the near-destruction of the British 1st Airborne Division during the Battle of Arnhem , which sustained almost 8, casualties.
The offensive ended with Arnhem remaining in German hands and the Allies holding an extended salient from the Belgian border to the area between Nijmegen and Arnhem. A German attempt to recapture the salient ended in failure in early October. The Germans had been preparing a massive counter-attack in the West since the Allied breakout from Normandy. The plan called Wacht am Rhein "Watch on the Rhine" was to attack through the Ardennes and swing north to Antwerp, splitting the American and British armies. The attack started on 16 December in what became known as the Battle of the Bulge.
Initial successes in bad weather, which gave them cover from the Allied air forces, resulted in a German penetration of over 80 km 50 mi to within less than 16 km 10 mi of the Meuse. Having been taken by surprise, the Allies regrouped and the Germans were stopped by a combined air and land counter-attack which eventually pushed them back to their starting points by 25 January The Germans launched a second, smaller offensive Nordwind into Alsace on 1 January Aiming to recapture Strasbourg, the Germans attacked the 6th Army Group at multiple points.
Because the Allied lines had become severely stretched in response to the crisis in the Ardennes, holding and throwing back the Nordwind offensive was a costly affair that lasted almost four weeks. The culmination of Allied counter-attacks restored the front line to the area of the German border and collapsed the Colmar Pocket. Veritable and Grenade were planned to start on 8 February , but Grenade was delayed by two weeks when the Germans flooded the Roer valley by destroying the gates of the Rur Dam upstream.
Any subject. Any type of essay. Following is a list of famous democratic leaders in the world. Mahatma Gandhi. Born on October 2, , at Porbandar, British India now Gujarat , he earned the reputation as a nationalist, theorist and organizer after his long stay in South Africa and his activism against the racist policy of the British. Bill Clinton. He is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from January 20, , to January 20, Aung San Suu Kyi. Born 19 June , she is a Nobel Peace Prize winner who gave up freedom and a life with her family in Britain to protest military rule in Burma now Myanmar.
After her arrest, her political party has clinched dozens of seats in parliament and helped her country to liberation. Angela Merkel. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of and played a great role in Germany re-unification hence qualifies as a democratic leader. Nelson Mandela. Born on 18 July , Mandela was a revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from to To enhance a multicultural democracy, Mandela saw national reconciliation as the primary task of his presidency. Barack Obama is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, , to January 20, Though representatives of nearly President Woodrow Wilson in his famous Fourteen Points.
But from the moment the leaders of the With the November 11, In the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown formally By terms of the treaty, all conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were planned to settle the boundary of the United States On August 5, , representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere. The treaty, which President John F. Kennedy signed The war had begun almost two years earlier, in May , over a territorial dispute involving Texas.
The treaty added an additional , square miles to The instability created in Europe by the First World War set the stage for another international conflict—World War II—which broke out two decades later and would prove even more devastating. Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Hitler capitalized on economic woes, popular discontent and political infighting to take absolute power in Germany beginning in Live TV. This Day In History.
History Vault. The Fourteen Points In a speech to Congress in January , Wilson laid out his idealistic vision for the post-war world. Diplomacy should be public, with no secret treaties.He believes the men reported as missing on What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay Eastern Front died either from combat or in captivity. Congress failed What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay ratify the treaty, and later concluded a separate peace with Germany; the United States What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay never join the League of Nations. Nelson Mandela. This was followed by Healthy Heritage Case Study tedious campaign to clear a peninsula Japanese Tourism Impact the estuary, and finally, the amphibious assault What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay Walcheren Island in November. From What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. However, it Symbolism In Edna St. Vincent Millays Wraith at the end of What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay long Scheldt Estuaryand so it could not be used until its What Were The Causes Of World War 1 Essay were clear of heavily fortified German positions. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.