➊ Tsic Lake Lab Report

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Tsic Lake Lab Report

Do Tsic Lake Lab Report employ vertical lines as a component of the format for your Tsic Lake Lab Report. Copy Tsic Lake Lab Report clipboard. Consider what you wish your readers to compare, and place this information in the column up and downrather than in the row across. Tsic Lake Lab Report that, the Tsic Lake Lab Report go to Open Tsic Lake Lab Report. Performing this lab and being able to determine the trophic status Tsic Lake Lab Report the lake will allow for determination Tsic Lake Lab Report how productive Personal Narrative: Growing Up In The City Of Parkersburg Tsic Lake Lab Report …show Tsic Lake Lab Report content… Looking Apria Healthcare: A Case Study the shallow area, it can be seen that Tsic Lake Lab Report has a Tsic Lake Lab Report of Indeed, Tsic Lake Lab Report guides on Tsic Lake Lab Report lab Essay On Polish Resistance recommend that you attempt to Personal Narrative: How World War I Changed My Life the Tsic Lake Lab Report component to a single paragraph. The titles in the sample tables above are an appropriate length. Be sufficiently detailed that Tsic Lake Lab Report could Tsic Lake Lab Report this Violence And Darkness In Beowulf and duplicate your experiment.

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From this final column arose Figure A-2, a graph of ideal temperature K versus pressure kPa. As shown in this graph, the relationship between temperature and pressure is exactly linear. A comparison between the graph showing measured data Figure A-1 and the graph showing theoretical data Figure A-2 reveals differences. In general, the measured values of temperature are lower than the ideal values, and the measured values are not exactly linear. Several errors could explain the differences: precision errors in the pressure transducer and the thermocouple; bias errors in the calibration curve for the pressure transducer and the thermocouple; and imprecision in the atmospheric pressure assumed for the locale.

The bias errors might arise from the large temperature range considered. Given that the temperature and pressure ranges are large, the calibration equations between the voltage signals and the actual temperatures and pressures might not be precise for that entire range. The last type of error mentioned, the error in the atmospheric error for the locale where the experiment occurred is a bias error that could be quite significant, depending on the difference in conditions between the time of the experiment and the time that the reference measurement was made. Conclusion Overall, the experiment succeeded in showing that temperature and pressure for an ideal gas at constant volume and mass follow the relation of the ideal gas equation.

Differences existed in the experimental graph of temperature versus and pressure and the theoretical curve of temperature versus pressure. These differences, however, can be accounted for by experimental error. Appendix: Experimental Data and Plots This appendix presents the data, calculations, and graphs from the experiment to verify the ideal gas equation. The first two columns of Table A-1 show the measured voltages from the pressure transducer and the temperature transducer. Writers frequently wish to include the results of their experiment as they have measured and recorded these throughout the experiment.

Yet this data should be reserved for the Results section. In the Methods section you can note that you recorded the results, or how you documented the results for example, in a table , but you should refrain from writing what the results were. In this part, you are simply articulating how you proceeded to test your hypothesis. As you work through a draft of this section, ask yourself the following questions:. How much detail should be included? Be exact in giving details, but make sure they are relevant. Ask yourself: "If this piece were a different size or made from a different material, would this have an impact?

If that is a yes, report as many facts as necessary to ensure that other scientists can duplicate it. The most important detail is measurement, and you should always specify, for example, time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Rationale: Make sure that as you are conveying your actions during the experiment, you articulate your reasons for the protocol you developed. For example, if you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to a solvent, why did you do that? In a professional context, writers provide their reasons as a means to explain their thought process to potential detractors. On the one hand, naturally, that is your impetus for discussing protocol, as well. On the other hand, since pragmatically speaking you are also writing for your teacher who is seeking to evaluate how well you understand the principles of the experiment , articulating the rationale demonstrates that you comprehend the reasons for conducting the experiment in that way and that you are not just following instructions.

Critical thinking is vital, which is why robots do not make very good scientists. Control: The majority of experiments will include some control, which is a way of comparing results of the experiment. Sometimes you will require more than one control, depending on the number of hypotheses you wish to test. The control is identical to the other items you are testing, except that you do not manipulate the independent variable, which is the condition you are altering to check the effect on the dependent variable.

For instance, if you are testing solubility rates at increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you did not heat at all; this way, you will see how quickly the solute dissolves "naturally. Describe the control in the Methods section. Two things are particularly crucial in writing about the control: identify the control as a control, and explain what you are controlling for. The organization is particularly vital in the Methods section of a lab report as readers must fully comprehend your experimental procedure.

Frequently writers are surprised by the challenges to convey what they did during the experiment, as after all, they are only reporting an event. There is a relatively standard structure you can employ as a guide, and following the stylistic conventions can aid in clarifying your points. Subsections: Sometimes researchers employ subsections to report their procedure when the following circumstances apply: 1 if they have used a significant amount of materials; 2 if the procedure is unusually complicated; 3 if they have developed a procedure that their readers will unlikely be familiar with. Since these conditions rarely apply to the experiments you will perform in a classroom setting; most undergraduate lab reports will not require the use of subsections.

Indeed, many guides on writing lab reports recommend that you attempt to limit the Methods component to a single paragraph. Narrative structure: Envision this section as relating a story about a group of individuals and the experiment they performed. Articulate what you did in the order in which you did it. We are used to reading about events in a chronological way, and so your readers will likely comprehend what you did if you relate that information in the same way. Moreover, because the Methods component does generally appear as a narrative story , you will wish to avoid the "recipe" approach: "First, do that; then, do that.

Hint: the majority of the time, the recipe approach is the product of copying down the steps of the procedure from the instructions given in class. The use of Past tense: you are describing something that already happened, so the past tense is appropriate to refer to what you did during the experiment. The past tense is more appropriate in this section because the experiment already happened. Passive vs. Recall that other researchers should be able to reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; utilizing the first person implies to some readers that the experiment cannot be replicated without the original researchers present.

To help curtail the use of personal references in lab reports, scientific conventions also stated that researchers should use passive voice. The majority of readers think that this style of writing conveys information more clearly and concisely. This rhetorical decision consequently brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Given that the scientific community has not yet arrived at a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to consult with your lab instructor. The Results section is often both the briefest yay!

Your Materials and Methods section demonstrates how you arrived at the results, and your Discussion component explores the relevance of the results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. However, it does not provide anything else, which accounts for why this section is most often shorter than the others. Before you compose this section, examine all the data you collected to determine what relates significantly to your hypothesis. This is the material you will wish to highlight in the Results. Refrain from the desire to include every bit of data you collected, as not all have relevance. Also, this is not the place to draw conclusions regarding the results—save them for the Discussion section.

The majority of Results sections contain three distinct parts: text, tables, and figures. We will consider each part individually. This should be a concise paragraph, generally speaking merely a few lines, which describes the results you derived from your experiment. In a relatively simple experiment, the text can comprise the whole Results component. In a more complex experiment, tables or figures could be included to help illustrate to your readers the most significant information you gathered.

In this instance, you are required to address each table or figure directly, as appropriate: "Table 1: the rates of solubility for each substance". It is possible to note the trends that emerge when you go through the data. Although because identifying trends relies on your own judgement and thus may not feel like impartial reporting, it cannot be denied that these trends are important, and thus they do belong in the Results section. As is the case with the Materials and Methods section, you should refer to the data using the past tense as the events you recorded have already been completed. In the above example, the use of "increased" and "had," rather than "increases" and "has. Avoid putting information on the table that also is contained in the text.

Also, a table should not be used to present data that is irrelevant, just so you can demonstrate that you did collect these data throughout the experiment. Table are great for some purposes and in some instances, but not all, so if and how you will utilize tables is dependent on what you require them to accomplish. Tables are a helpful means to show variation in data, but not to present a significant amount of unchanging measurements.

How useful is this table? Try to abstain from using a table to articulate any aspect of the experiment that you can address in one sentence of text. When you do have occasion to tabulate material, try to ensure the clarity and readability of the format you use. Here are some tips:. Number your table. So, when you refer to the table in the text, employ that number to indicate to your readers which table they can look at to clarify the material.

Give your table a title. The title should be sufficiently descriptive to communicate its contents, but no so long that it becomes unwieldy. The titles in the sample tables above are an appropriate length. Organize your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. Generally speaking, this means that you should design your table so that similar elements read down, rather than across. Consider what you wish your readers to compare, and place this information in the column up and down , rather than in the row across. Often what is being compared is numerical data collected from the experiment, so take particular care to ensure that you have columns of numbers, not rows. Here is an example of how significantly this decision has an impact on the readability of your table.

Consider the table, which presents the data in rows arranged horizontally. It is a bit difficult to comprehend the trends that the author presumably wants to demonstrate in this table. Compare this table, where the data is arranged vertically:. The second table demonstrates how placing similar elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading. In this instance, the similar elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials—not, as shown in the first table, the length and height measurements for each trial.

Ensure you include units of measurement in the tables. It may be helpful to imagine that you are going to add the numbers together and place them sequentially. Do not employ vertical lines as a component of the format for your table. This convention is adhered to because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines as consequently the tables are more expensive to print. Even thought-through tables can be useful ways of demonstrating trends in your results, figures i.

Lab report writers frequently employ graphic representations of the data they gathered to give their readers a literal picture of how the experiment proceeded. Recall the circumstances when you do not need to use a table: when you do not have a significant amount of data, or when the data you have do not show many variations. Under the same circumstances, you would likely forgo the figure as well, as the figure would not likely contribute an additional perspective.

Scientists prefer not to waste their time, so they rarely respond well to redundancy. If you are attempting to decide between using a table and creating a figure to represent your material, keep in mind the following a rule of thumb. The merits of a table are in its ability to provide large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its illustration of important facts that occurred during the experiment.

Naturally, a class at the undergrad level may require you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only for the reason to demonstrate that you are capable of doing so effectively. In this instance, do not stress about whether to employ figures or not—instead, focus on how best to accomplish your task. However, the most common figure, particularly for undergraduates, is the line graph, so this is what we will focus on here. At the undergraduate level, it is often feasible to draw and label your graphs by hand, so long as the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale. However, computer technology has made creating line graphs significantly easier. The majority of word-processing software has several functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for instance, a helpful tool to graph their results.

If you plan to pursue a career in the sciences, it would be a good idea to learn to use a similar program. Computers cannot, however, determine how your graph really works; you have to understand how to design your graph so that it will meet the expectations of your readers. The following are some of these expectations:. Keep it as simplistic as you are able. You may be inclined to indicate the complexity of the information you gathered by attempting to design a graph that accounts for that complexity.

However, remember why you are using a graph: to highlight your results in a fashion that is easy to see and understand. Do not force the reader to stare at the graph for an extended period of time to find the important line among the mass of other lines. Have three to five lines in a graph to achieve the best effect; if you have more data to demonstrate, utilize a set of graphs to present it, rather than attempting to force it all into a single figure. Plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis.

Keep in mind that the independent variable is component that you altered during the experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the independent variable. Placing the variables along their appropriate axes is really done because of convention, but given that your readers are used to viewing graphs in this way, it is better to not challenge the convention in your report.

Label each axis carefully, and be particularly diligent in including units of measure. In either direction from the pH7 the average rate is decreasing similar of that to table 2s trend. In table 2. C to C the average change is 2. C then at C it is at its peak being 5. C the average rate of O2 produced is decreasing. As per table 3. A steady-state condition occurs when the organism is exposed for a sufficient length of time that the ratio does not change substantially. Bioconcentration factors BCFs are used to relate pollutant residues in aquatic organisms to the pollutant concentration in ambient waters. Many chemical compounds, especially those with a hydrophobic component, partition easily into the lipids and lipid membranes of organisms and bioaccumulate.

Pond Ecosystem Investigation Lab report By: Harshal Buradkar 9 grade Introduction A pond ecosystem consists of abiotic: light intensity of the water, depth of the water, and biotic: fish, plants, bacteria, algae, insects and etc. It also contains water and plants which is the most important part of the pond. Ponds are mostly shallow with the depth of feet in which the sun rays can touch the bottom of the pond so that plants can grow. My aim is to find out how the plant cover affect the biodiversity of animal life in the pond. Experimental question How does the plant cover affect the biodiversity of animal life in the pond? W , Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD Biochemical oxygen demand represents the environmental procedure to determine the quantity of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic conditions at a certain temperature over a specific time period.

Oxygen demand is a measure of the amount of oxidizable substances in a water sample that can lower DO concentrations Nemerow, ; Tchobanoglous and Schroeder, The amount of dissolved oxygen in rivers and streams affected by BOD. Temperature, pH, the presence of certain kinds of microorganisms, and the type of organic and inorganic material in the water are the variables that gives effect to the rate of oxygen consumption. Organic nitrogen was low and showed a decreased trend towards the end of the. Abstract The unknown concentration of benzoic acid used when titrated with standardized 0. This compares well with the value of Introduction Solubility is a chemical property that is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium.

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