✎✎✎ Islam Gender Roles

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Islam Gender Roles



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Exploring Islam in America: Women in Islam

Islam considers the heterosexual relationship between a man and a woman the only acceptable relationship. Within this traditional relationship, the male is allowed more room for expression of his sexual rights than the female is as mentioned above. There are three types of heterosexual relationships: pre-marital, marital, and extramarital. Pre-marital sex is frowned upon in general. However, there are strict regulations on men and women to keep their virginity. Men and women are advised to abstain from indulging in indiscriminate sexual relationships for mere satisfaction of carnal desires.

Marriage is the only acceptable means to indulge in sexual relationships, any other is considered as "Zina", one of the major sins in Islam. In Islamic marital practices, the male pays a dower for his wife, which is one of the essentials of marriage. Other essentials are the presence of witnesses and 'Waliy' guardian. Muhammad was reported to have said: marriage is not valid without Sadaq, Waliy and Shahidain Dower, Guardian and Witnesses respectively The dower is a fixed amount of money, a gift of jewelry or property equivalent, that is given to the bride as her own.

A Muslim marriage is usually solemnized in the mosque before an imam, where guardians of both parties appear on their behalf especially that of the female and the marriage is pronounced after payment of the Sadaq. It is not a contract that needs to be signed by either of the parties. Sex is supposed to be shared between spouses a man and a woman. Men are technically allowed to take more than one wife, up to four wives as long as he can provide for each wife equally and not differentiate between them in a practice known as polygamy. Polygamy, though technically legal, is not a recommended practice in Islamic culture.

Women cannot have multiple husbands. Sexual affairs outside of marriage are prohibited in Islam, and result in severe punishment for the perpetrating husband or wife, upon rigid proof that they participated in an affair. The proof is given by four male witnesses or eight female witnesses with clean background histories i. Punishment for not being able to provide the required number of witnesses after accusing the defendants is eighty lashes of a whip. A couple is given opportunities to plead for forgiveness to God before the punishment is carried out. If they do not, they will be punished. If both parties are married, they will both be stoned to death. If one is married, while the other is not, the former will be stoned until dead, and the latter will be given a hundred lashes.

The severe punishment of extra-marital sex is mainly to act as a deterrent to society from engaging in such relationships, as sex outside marriage is a major sin in Islam. The pain of the punishment is also believed to lessen punishment in the afterlife. Traditional Islamic schools of thought, as based on the Quran and Hadith, consider same-gender sex to be a punishable sin. Additionally, guardianship, gender roles, and male control over women's sexuality are also tools that allow for the enforcement of heterosexual norms.

Some of what is deemed to be masculine in Muslim cultures stems from the life and actions of Muhammad as put down in the Hadith. Upon her death he later married a total of fourteen women. In addition to the relationship between Muslim masculinity and female sexuality, some concepts of Muslim masculinity stem from the relationships between Muslim men. Prominent writer of "Islamic Masculinities", Lahoucine Ouzgane, proposes the idea that masculinity is rooted in a fear of emasculation by other men.

Viewpoints regarding gender roles vary with different interpretations of the Quran , different sects of the religion, and different cultural and locational regions. Salafiyyah literally means "that which pertains to ancestry". The ideas of Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz are characteristic of much of the salafiyyah sect. But even these must obey a strict separation of gender. The Qur'anic and prophetic terms for "moderation" are reflected in the word "wasatiyyah," which means the "middle way between extremes" and "upright without losing balance. Muhammad Al-Ghazali 's ideas characterise much of the wasatiyyah school of thought. She asserts that in the male mind society is divided into an economically productive section that is public and male and a domestic sphere that is private and female and that these two areas should not mix.

Heba Ra'uf born Ra'uf stresses the importance of new interpretations of the Quran and Sunnah traditions and sayings of Muhammad. Ra'uf argues that the advancement of women's causes in Arab and Muslim societies requires a reworking of Islamic thought. She criticizes the efforts of those who draw their inspiration exclusively from Western feminism. Ra'uf dresses in the Muslim veil. Ra'uf acknowledges that women belong in the public sphere, and she challenges any gender-based separation between the public and private spheres. As of June , women are allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia.

They were the only country in the world with such a restriction. Women's development in Saudi Arabia has been relatively slower than in its neighbouring Arab countries, especially regarding the improvement of female participation. The Islamic Republic of Iran has witnessed a number of advancements and setbacks for women's roles in the past 40 years, especially following the Iranian Revolution of Initially laws were enacted that restricted women's freedom of movement such as a more strict enforcing of veiling and a segregation of the sexes in public space [55] [56] Educational access was restricted and certain political positions and occupations were discouraged or barred to women.

During the period of Taliban rule in Afghanistan, women were severely limited in employment opportunities. After the overthrow of the Taliban, education and employment opportunities improved. Women could again work as teachers, doctors, and civil servants. The Women Judges Association was established, and advocates female participation in the law and equality for women under the law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about gender roles in relationships between Islamic men and women, and their families. For related topics including Islamic women's clothing and juridical differences between the genders, see Women in Islam. This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Islam and gender segregation. Main article: Islamic sexual jurisprudence. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Religious views on female genital mutilation and Female genital mutilation. Main articles: Women in Afghanistan and Women's rights in Afghanistan. It's prohibited, prohibited, prohibited," Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa said on the privately-owned al-Mahwar network.

Accessed January 30, Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved March 14, Archived from the original on July 1, Why doing it 'like a girl' is great Story highlights A first-of-its-kind study looks at early adolescent gender identity development around the world Enforced gender expectations could lead to health inequities between boys and girls. You've probably heard it before : More than biology, family, friends and society influence impressions of what it means to be a boy or a girl, placing rigid gender expectations on children from a young age.

In recent years, a growing body of research has focused on health inequities that result from enforced gender norms in children. The study, published Wednesday in the Journal of Adolescent Health, contributes a global perspective to this issue. The key finding: Whether a child is in Baltimore, Beijing or New Delhi, the onset of adolescence triggers a common set of rigidly enforced gender expectations associated with increased lifelong risks of mental and physical health problems.

Researchers with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the World Health Organization collaborated on the Global Early Adolescent Study to identify universal themes in gender identity development across countries and income levels. Read More. What media teach kids about gender can have lasting effects. For girls, those risks can include child marriage, pregnancy, leaving school early, sexually transmitted infections and exposure to violence. Boys suffer, too, from increased risk of substance abuse, suicide and shorter life expectancy than women -- especially if they try to challenge masculine norms. The findings appear in the journal as a series of articles based on interviews in 15 countries with early adolescents and their parents or guardians, totaling nearly people.

The experiences described were different, but themes emerged across continents. Girls are vulnerable, and boys are strong. How son's gender identity changed Magic Johnson The study calls it the hegemonic myth: the perception that men are the dominant sex, strong and independent, while women need to be protected. This idea starts in early childhood, reinforced by schools, parents and media. Interviews with children and their guardians revealed that the onset of puberty triggers increased reinforcement of pressure to conform to hegemonic sex-typed identities and roles. While boys, men described having the freedom to come and go as they pleased to pursue education and other opportunities, girls found their mobility and access to education restricted, the study notes.

As they enter adolescence, silence and modesty are instilled as desirable values, as girls are pressed to behave in a "modest fashion. This phenomenon leads to numerous cascading cultural perceptions. Once puberty hits, it's all about preventing sex. Puberty deepens the divide, especially when it comes to sexuality, turning boys into predators and girls into potential targets, the study found. Messages such as "don't sit like that," "don't wear that" and "boys will ruin your future" reinforce the gender division of power and promote sex segregation with the aim of preserving a girl's sexuality, the study says.

Girls feel less 'smart' than boys by age 6, research says.

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