❤❤❤ Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay
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The Cocoanut Grove Disaster - A Short Documentary - Fascinating Horror
Gangland boss and bootlegger Charles "King" Solomon , also known as "Boston Charlie", owned the club from to January 24, , when he was gunned down in the men's room of Roxbury 's Cotton Club nightclub. Welansky was known to be a tough boss who ran a tight ship: hiring teenagers to work as busboys for low wages, and street thugs who doubled as waiters and bouncers. He locked exits, concealed others with draperies, and even bricked up one emergency exit to prevent customers from leaving without paying. Originally a garage and warehouse complex, the brick and concrete buildings had been converted to a one-and-a-half-story meandering complex of dining rooms, bars, and lounges.
A new lounge in an adjoining building had opened only a week before the fire. Support columns in the main dining area were made to look like palm trees , with light fixtures made to look like coconuts. That theme was carried over into the basement Melody Lounge, with what little light there was provided by palm tree light fixtures. The "Grove" had become one of Boston's most popular nightspots, featuring a restaurant and dancing in the main area, floor shows, and piano-playing entertainers in the Melody Lounge. Across from the main dining area was the "Caricature Bar", which featured renditions of the establishment's more prominent guests. The club had recently been expanded eastward with the new Broadway Lounge, which opened onto adjacent Broadway between Piedmont Street south side and Shawmut Street north side.
Wall coverings and decorative materials had been approved on the basis of tests for ordinary ignition, which showed resistance to combustion from sources such as matches and cigarettes. Decorative cloth was purportedly treated with ammonium sulfate as a fire retardant upon installation, but there was no documentation that the fire retardant treatment was maintained at the required intervals.
Since the US entry into the war, air-conditioning systems had been serviced and the freon refrigerant was replaced by a flammable gas called methyl chloride , due to the wartime shortage of freon. In a great upset of that period, Holy Cross beat Boston College by a score of 55— College bowl game scouts had attended the game in order to offer Boston College a bid to the Sugar Bowl game. As a result of the rout, a Boston College celebration party scheduled for the Grove that evening was canceled. It is estimated that, on that Saturday night, more than 1, Thanksgiving weekend revelers, wartime servicemen and their sweethearts, football fans, and others were crammed into a space rated for a maximum of people.
Official reports state that the fire started at about pm in the Melody Lounge. Goody Goodelle, a young pianist and singer, was performing on a revolving stage surrounded by artificial palm trees. The lounge was lit by low-powered light bulbs in coconut-styled sconces beneath the fronds. A young man, possibly a soldier, had unscrewed a light bulb in order to give himself and his date privacy while kissing. He stepped up onto a chair to reach the light in the darkened corner. Unable to see the bulb, he lit a match to illuminate the area, tightened the bulb, and extinguished the match. Witnesses first saw flames in the fronds, which were just below the ceiling, immediately afterward.
Though the lit match had been close to the same fronds where the fire was seen to have begun, the official report determined that Tomaszewski's actions could not be found to be the source of the fire, which "will be entered into the records of this department as being of unknown origin. Despite waiters' efforts to douse the fire with water, it spread along the fronds of the palm tree. In a final desperate attempt to separate the burning fronds from the fabric-covered false ceiling, the decoration was pulled away from the corner, taking with it a triangular plywood panel at the ceiling level and opening the enclosed space above the false ceiling. Coincidentally or not, that was the point at which the fire spread to the false ceiling which burned rapidly, showering patrons with sparks and burning shreds of fabric.
Flames raced up the stairway to the main level, burning the hair of patrons fleeing up the stairs. A fireball burst through the front entryway and spread through the remaining club areas: through the adjacent Caricature Bar, down a corridor to the Broadway Lounge, and across the central restaurant and dance floor as the orchestra was beginning its evening show. Flames raced faster than patrons could move, followed by thick clouds of smoke.
Within five minutes, flames and smoke had spread to the entire nightclub. Some patrons were instantly overcome by smoke as they sat in their seats. Others crawled through the smoky darkness trying to find exits, all but one of which were either non-functioning or hidden in non-public areas. Many patrons attempted to exit through the main entrance, the same way they had entered. The building's main entrance was a single revolving door , which was rendered useless as the crowd stampeded in panic. Bodies piled up behind both sides of the revolving door, jamming it until it broke. Firemen had to douse the flames to approach the door. Later, after fire laws had tightened, it would become illegal to have only one revolving door as a main entrance without being flanked by outward opening doors with panic bar openers attached, or have the revolving doors set up so that the doors could fold against themselves in emergency situations.
Other avenues of escape were similarly useless; side doors had been bolted shut to prevent people from leaving without paying. A plate glass window, which could have been smashed for escape, was boarded up and unusable as an emergency exit. Other unlocked doors, like the ones in the Broadway Lounge, opened inwards, rendering them useless against the crush of people trying to escape. Fire officials would later testify that had the doors swung outwards, at least lives could have been spared. From nearby bars, soldiers and sailors raced to assist. On the street, firefighters lugged out bodies and were treated for burned hands.
As night deepened, the temperature dropped. Water on cobblestone pavements froze. Hoses froze to the ground. Newspaper trucks were appropriated as ambulances. Smoldering bodies, living and dead, were hosed in icy water. Some victims had breathed fumes so hot that when they inhaled cold air, as one firefighter put it, they dropped like stones. Later, during the cleanup of the building, firefighters found several dead guests sitting in their seats with drinks in their hands. They had been overcome so quickly by fire and toxic smoke that they had not had time to move. Boston newspapers were filled with lists of the dead and stories of narrow escapes and deaths. Well-known movie-cowboy actor Buck Jones was at the club that night, and his wife later explained that he had initially escaped then gone back into the burning building to find his agent, producer Scott R.
Dunlap of Monogram Pictures. However, after the blaze, Jones was discovered slumped under his table severely burned, so some doubted accounts of his escape. Although rushed to hospital, Jones died of his injuries two days later. Those in the employ of the establishment fared better in escaping than customers, owing to their familiarity with service areas, where the fire's effects were less severe than in the public areas, and which provided access to additional window and door exits. A double door opposite the public entryway to the main dining room was unlocked by wait staff and was soon the only functional outside exit from public areas. Although several members of the band, including musical director Bernie Fazioli, lost their lives, most of them escaped backstage and through a service door that they rammed open.
Alpert escaped out of a basement window and was credited with leading several people to safety. Bassist Jack Lesberg went on to play music with Louis Armstrong , Sarah Vaughan , Leonard Bernstein , and many others until shortly before his death in That statement has been interpreted literally, with the additional color of Lesberg using his bass to create a new opening in a wall, and in the context of the vernacular use of the term "made", which can mean attained or achieved.
No witness statements refer to the use of Lesberg's bass as a battering ram or its presence anywhere along the escape route. Three bartenders, cashier Jeanette Lanzoni, entertainer Goody Goodelle, other employees and some patrons in the Melody Lounge escaped into the kitchen. Bartender Daniel Weiss survived by dousing a cloth napkin with a pitcher of water and breathing through it as he made his escape from the Melody Lounge. Those in the kitchen had escape routes through a window above a service bar and up a stairway to another window and a service door that was eventually rammed open.
Five people survived by taking refuge in a walk-in refrigerator and a few more in an ice box. Rescuers reached the kitchen after about ten minutes. Coast Guardsman Clifford Johnson went back inside the building no fewer than four times in search of his date who, unbeknownst to him, had safely escaped. Sacred groves are places where there are a few trees to several acres of forests or natural vegetation dedicated to local folk deities or tree spirits.
They are usually set up or controlled by local communities or villages. There are three types of sacred groves that were formed by communities in the past including traditional sacred groves, temple groves and groves around burial or cremation grounds. Traditional sacred groves are built with religious meanings and functions. They are usually regarded. After the fire was extinguished the firefighters were about to return to quarters when their attention was called to smoke emanating from the Cocoanut Grove Nightclub a few doors away. The chief in charge immediately ordered that a third alarm be sounded. On November 28th, a fire broke out in Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston.
The fire killed approximately people, injuring , and impacting numerous others Cocoanut Grove Fire. This event became known as one of the deadliest nightclub fires of its time. The causes for such a devastating event can be analyzed using utilitarian ethics presented by John Stuart Mill. The decisions made by the owners of the nightclub will be evaluated as being right or wrong based on utilitarian theory. Cocoanut Grove Fire Few incidents in America history have had an effect on the fire service and fire codes like the Cocoanut Grove Fire, the fire became so influential it affected the means of treating burn victims in a hospital setting pioneering the use of petroleum jelly and gauze as the preferred treatment for burn victims.
On November 28, a fire that would consume lives and injure over patrons of the club. The Cocoanut. They were very open and welcoming to the idea of an interview and made me feel comfortable during the process. The most difficult aspect was being put in contact with them for the interview. I had to schedule the interviews with the Executive Coordinator. She was very helpful and easy to work with, even though it took the most time. Amid World War 1, isolated troops of dark fighters walked their energetic music through 2, miles of modest ranch towns and enormous show lobbies crosswise over France. Their leader was Lt.
James Reese Europe, a well-respected New York bandleader. The event I attended was called Enter Helen. It was about a book that was written based to the life of Helen Gurley Brown. The event was very small and held at a bookstore named Powerhouse, which is located in Dumbo Brooklyn situated between the Brooklyn and the Manhattan bridges. I really liked the location that was chosen to host the event since it had breathtaking views of both the bridges and the Manhattan skyline as a backdrop.
At the event they served wine however I did not partake since I had just came off of a twelve hour shift at work and was also driving. You are invited in not only with virtuosic and bluesy sense, but also with humor. Without surprise, the music slid into a familiar crossover jazz spiced with thick chunks of spirited funk and smooth pop rock. Avid fans of the smooth jazz genre effusively applauded the quartet co-led by the iconic Dave Grusin and the Grammy award-winning guitarist Lee Ritenour.
Rounding out the group are the bassist Melvin Lee and the drummer Sonny Emory, two musicians that belong to a much younger generation. This formation gained even more emphasis with the guests David Sanborn, an altoist whose career brought him six Grammy awards, and Phil Perry, a vocalist known for having a remarkable falsetto. Because jazz music needs no translation. Music is that constant among all the differences with the cities I visit, and the languages I learn. I was escorted to the back of the pub; the root of the less than pleasant music, and was seated in an extremely small audience section where I was clearly the only one alone. The awesome part about going out alone is blending into the crowd and not feeling alone, this place left me no choice but to wallow in my lonesomeness while hearing really cheesy cover songs.
Then things turned for a twist: my second glass of Cabernet got me in the. Show More. Read More.I chose this story because it shook me a little. Valladarez descended a narrow flight of Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay and found the first Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay bar filled with flames. Has he started towards us? Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at Theme Of Morality In Jane Eyre that he Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay help Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay to be Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay if we would listen that he would never be free until we did.