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Stuttering In High School



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Hormones coordinate the physiology and behavior of individuals by regulating, integrating, and controlling bodily functions. Over evolutionary time, hormones have often been co-opted by the nervous system to influence behavior to ensure reproductive success. For example, the same hormones, testosterone and estradiol, that cause gamete egg or sperm maturation also promote mating behavior. This dual hormonal function ensures that mating behavior occurs when animals have mature gametes available for fertilization. Another example of endocrine regulation of physiological and behavioral function is provided by pregnancy.

Estrogens and progesterone concentrations are elevated during pregnancy, and these hormones are often involved in mediating maternal behavior in the mothers. Not all cells are influenced by each and every hormone. Rather, any given hormone can directly influence only cells that have specific hormone receptors for that particular hormone. Cells that have these specific receptors are called target cells for the hormone. The interaction of a hormone with its receptor begins a series of cellular events that eventually lead to activation of enzymatic pathways or, alternatively, turns on or turns off gene activation that regulates protein synthesis. The newly synthesized proteins may activate or deactivate other genes, causing yet another cascade of cellular events.

Importantly, sufficient numbers of appropriate hormone receptors must be available for a specific hormone to produce any effects. For example, testosterone is important for male sexual behavior. If men have too little testosterone, then sexual motivation may be low, and it can be restored by testosterone treatment. However, if men have normal or even elevated levels of testosterone yet display low sexual drive, then it might be possible for a lack of receptors to be the cause and treatment with additional hormones will not be effective. How might hormones affect behavior? In terms of their behavior, one can think of humans and other animals conceptually as comprised of three interacting components: 1 input systems sensory systems , 2 integrators the central nervous system , and 3 output systems, or effectors e.

Hormones do not cause behavioral changes. Rather, hormones influence these three systems so that specific stimuli are more likely to elicit certain responses in the appropriate behavioral or social context. In other words, hormones change the probability that a particular behavior will be emitted in the appropriate situation Nelson, This is a critical distinction that can affect how we think of hormone-behavior relationships. We can apply this three-component behavioral scheme to a simple behavior, singing in zebra finches. Only male zebra finches sing. If the testes of adult male finches are removed, then the birds reduce singing, but castrated finches resume singing if the testes are reimplanted, or if the birds are treated with either testosterone or estradiol.

Thus, many male-like behaviors are associated with the actions of estrogens! Indeed, all estrogens must first be converted from androgens because of the typical biochemical synthesis process. If the converting enzyme is low or missing, then it is possible for females to produce excessive androgens and subsequently develop associated male traits. It is also possible for estrogens in the environment to affect the nervous system of animals, including people e. Again, singing behavior is most frequent when blood testosterone or estrogen concentrations are high.

Males sing to attract mates or ward off potential competitors from their territories. If this were the case, then females or competitors might be more easily seen or heard. Estrogens also could influence the central nervous system. Neuronal architecture or the speed of neural processing could change in the presence of estrogens. Higher neural processes e. Finally, the effector organs, muscles in this case, could be affected by the presence of estrogens. Estrogens, therefore, could affect birdsong by influencing the sensory capabilities, central processing system, or effector organs of an individual bird.

We do not understand completely how estrogen, derived from testosterone, influences birdsong, but in most cases, hormones can be considered to affect behavior by influencing one, two, or all three of these components, and this three-part framework can aid in the design of hypotheses and experiments to explore these issues. How might behaviors affect hormones? The birdsong example demonstrates how hormones can affect behavior, but as noted, the reciprocal relation also occurs; that is, behavior can affect hormone concentrations.

For example, the sight of a territorial intruder may elevate blood testosterone concentrations in resident male birds and thereby stimulate singing or fighting behavior. Similarly, male mice or rhesus monkeys that lose a fight decrease circulating testosterone concentrations for several days or even weeks afterward. Comparable results have also been reported in humans. Testosterone concentrations are affected not only in humans involved in physical combat, but also in those involved in simulated battles. For example, testosterone concentrations were elevated in winners and reduced in losers of regional chess tournaments. People do not have to be directly involved in a contest to have their hormones affected by the outcome of the contest.

Male fans of both the Brazilian and Italian teams were recruited to provide saliva samples to be assayed for testosterone before and after the final game of the World Cup soccer match in Brazil and Italy were tied going into the final game, but Brazil won on a penalty kick at the last possible moment. The Brazilian fans were elated and the Italian fans were crestfallen.

When the samples were assayed, 11 of 12 Brazilian fans who were sampled had increased testosterone concentrations, and 9 of 9 Italian fans had decreased testosterone concentrations, compared with pre-game baseline values Dabbs, In some cases, hormones can be affected by anticipation of behavior. For example, testosterone concentrations also influence sexual motivation and behavior in women. On three separate occasions, women provided a pre-activity, post-activity, and next-morning saliva sample. Thus, an anticipatory relationship exists between sexual behavior and testosterone. Testosterone values were higher post-intercourse compared to exercise, suggesting that engaging in sexual behavior may also influence hormone concentrations in women.

Hens and roosters are different. Cows and bulls are different. Men and women are different. Even girls and boys are different. The behavior of boys and girls differs in many ways. Girls generally excel in verbal abilities relative to boys; boys are nearly twice as likely as girls to suffer from dyslexia reading difficulties and stuttering and nearly 4 times more likely to suffer from autism. Boys are generally better than girls at tasks that require visuospatial abilities. Girls engage in nurturing behaviors more frequently than boys. Young men are twice as likely as young women to suffer from schizophrenia.

Many sex differences, such as the difference in aggressiveness, persist throughout adulthood. For example, there are many more men than women serving prison sentences for violent behavior. The hormonal differences between men and women may account for adult sex differences that develop during puberty, but what accounts for behavioral sex differences among children prior to puberty and activation of their gonads? Hormonal secretions from the developing gonads determine whether the individual develops in a male or female manner.

The mammalian embryonic testes produce androgens, as well as peptide hormones, that steer the development of the body, central nervous system, and subsequent behavior in a male direction. The embryonic ovaries of mammals are virtually quiescent and do not secrete high concentrations of hormones. In the presence of ovaries, or in the complete absence of any gonads, morphological, neural, and, later, behavioral development follows a female pathway.

The organizing effects of steroid hormones are relatively constrained to the early stages of development. An asymmetry exists in the effects of testes and ovaries on the organization of behavior in mammals. Hormone exposure early in life has organizational effects on subsequent rodent behavior; early steroid hormone treatment causes relatively irreversible and permanent masculinization of rodent behavior mating and aggressive. These early hormone effects can be contrasted with the reversible behavioral influences of steroid hormones provided in adulthood, which are called activational effects.

The activational effects of hormones on adult behavior are temporary and may wane soon after the hormone is metabolized. Thus, typical male behavior requires exposure to androgens during gestation in humans or immediately after birth in rodents to somewhat masculinize the brain and also requires androgens during or after puberty to activate these neural circuits. Typical female behavior requires a lack of exposure to androgens early in life which leads to feminization of the brain and also requires estrogens to activate these neural circuits in adulthood. But this simple dichotomy, which works well with animals with very distinct sexual dimorphism in behavior, has many caveats when applied to people.

If you walk through any major toy store, then you will likely observe a couple of aisles filled with pink boxes and the complete absence of pink packaging of toys in adjacent aisles. Remarkably, you will also see a strong self-segregation of boys and girls in these aisles. The toy manufacturers are often accused of making toys that are gender biased, but it seems more likely that boys and girls enjoy playing with specific types and colors of toys. Indeed, toy manufacturers would immediately double their sales if they could sell toys to both sexes.

Boys generally prefer toys such as trucks and balls and girls generally prefer toys such as dolls. It is reasonable to believe that children learn which types of toys and which styles of play are appropriate to their gender. How can we understand and separate the contribution of physiological mechanisms from learning to understand sex differences in human behaviors? To untangle these issues, animal models are often used. Unlike the situation in humans, where sex differences are usually only a matter of degree often slight , in some animals, members of only one sex may display a particular behavior. As noted, often only male songbirds sing. Studies of such strongly sex-biased behaviors are particularly valuable for understanding the interaction among behavior, hormones, and the nervous system.

Female vervet monkeys preferred girl-typical toys, such as dolls or cooking pots, whereas male vervet monkeys preferred boy-typical toys, such as cars or balls. There were no sex differences in preference for gender-neutral toys, such as picture books or stuffed animals. Young rhesus monkeys also show similar toy preferences. What then underlies the sex difference in toy preference? It is possible that certain attributes of toys or objects appeal to either boys or girls.

Toys that appeal to boys or male vervet or rhesus monkeys, in this case, a ball or toy car, are objects that can be moved actively through space, toys that can be incorporated into active, rough and tumble play. The appeal of toys that girls or female vervet monkeys prefer appears to be based on color. Pink and red the colors of the doll and pot may provoke attention to infants. Society may reinforce such stereotypical responses to gender-typical toys. The sex differences in toy preferences emerge by 12 or 24 months of age and seem fixed by 36 months of age, but are sex differences in toy preference present during the first year of life?

It is difficult to ask pre-verbal infants what they prefer, but in studies where the investigators examined the amount of time that babies looked at different toys, eye-tracking data indicate that infants as young as 3 months showed sex differences in toy preferences; girls preferred dolls, whereas boys preferred trucks. Another result that suggests, but does not prove, that hormones are involved in toy preferences is the observation that girls diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH , whose adrenal glands produce varying amounts of androgens early in life, played with masculine toys more often than girls without CAH.

Further, a dose-response relationship between the extent of the disorder i. Are the sex differences in toy preferences or play activity, for example, the inevitable consequences of the differential endocrine environments of boys and girls, or are these differences imposed by cultural practices and beliefs? Are these differences the result of receiving gender-specific toys from an early age, or are these differences some combination of endocrine and cultural factors? Again, these are difficult questions to unravel in people. Even when behavioral sex differences appear early in development, there seems to be some question regarding the influences of societal expectations.

One example is the pattern of human play behavior during which males are more physical; this pattern is seen in a number of other species including nonhuman primates, rats, and dogs. Is the difference in the frequency of rough-and-tumble play between boys and girls due to biological factors associated with being male or female, or is it due to cultural expectations and learning? If there is a combination of biological and cultural influences mediating the frequency of rough-and-tumble play, then what proportion of the variation between the sexes is due to biological factors and what proportion is due to social influences?

Sex differences are common in humans and in nonhuman animals. Because males and females differ in the ratio of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormone concentrations, behavioral endocrinologists have been particularly interested in the extent to which behavioral sex differences are mediated by hormones. The process of becoming female or male is called sexual differentiation. The primary step in sexual differentiation occurs at fertilization. In mammals, the ovum which always contains an X chromosome can be fertilized by a sperm bearing either a Y or an X chromosome; this process is called sex determination. The chromosomal sex of homogametic mammals XX is female; the chromosomal sex of heterogametic mammals XY is male.

Chromosomal sex determines gonadal sex. Virtually all subsequent sexual differentiation is typically the result of differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones. Thus, gonadal sex determines hormonal sex, which regulates morphological sex. Morphological differences in the central nervous system, as well as in some effector organs, such as muscles, lead to behavioral sex differences. The process of sexual differentiation is complicated, and the potential for errors is present.

Perinatal exposure to androgens is the most common cause of anomalous sexual differentiation among females. The source of androgen may be internal e. Turner syndrome results when the second X chromosome is missing or damaged; these individuals possess dysgenic ovaries and are not exposed to steroid hormones until puberty. Interestingly, women with Turner syndrome often have impaired spatial memory. By studying individuals who do not neatly fall into the dichotic boxes of female or male and for whom the process of sexual differentiation is atypical, behavioral endocrinologists glean hints about the process of typical sexual differentiation. We may ultimately want to know how hormones mediate sex differences in the human brain and behavior to the extent to which these differences occur.

To understand the mechanisms underlying sex differences in the brain and behavior, we return to the birdsong example. In contrast to mammals, in which structural differences in neural tissues have not been directly linked to behavior, structural differences in avian brains have been directly linked to a sexually behavior: birdsong. Several brain regions in songbirds display significant sex differences in size. Two major brain circuit pathways, 1 the song production motor pathway and 2 the auditory transmission pathway, have been implicated in the learning and production of birdsong. Some parts of the song production pathway of male zebra finches are 3 to 6 times larger than those of female conspecifics.

The larger size of these brain areas reflects that neurons in these nuclei are larger, more numerous, and farther apart. Although castration of adult male birds reduces singing, it does not reduce the size of the brain nuclei controlling song production. Similarly, androgen treatment of adult female zebra finches does not induce changes either in singing or in the size of the song control regions. Thus, activational effects of steroid hormones do not account for the sex differences in singing behavior or brain nucleus size in zebra finches. Their objective was to investigate whether a possible Jedi had been influencing King Lee-Char 's negotiations with the Empire and with them they took fourteen Purge Troopers.

Ackbar asked of their business and Ninth Sister gave him a writ that legally protected the Inquisitors from harm. Ackbar told her it was an outrage and she told him to take it up with Vader as he approached them. Ackbar continued questioning for their business on Mon Cala until Vader told him they were searching for a possible enemy of the Empire on Mon Cala. Ackbar denied the possibility but as he said that, a shuttle carrying the ambassador exploded, killing all on board.

Vader and the Inquisitors passed Ackbar and walked down from the landing pad. The Mon Calamari Guard began defending their cities. The Ninth Sister fought them on the landing pad at Dac City where they secured the area. Ninth Sister asked Vader where they were to go next and he told her that they were heading to the palace. She then asked him if why they would find the Jedi there, to which Vader said they were there for Lee-Char, hoping they could obtain the Jedi's location from him.

After slaying the guards, they entered the palace and took Lee-Char prisoner. Ninth Sister then interrogated him for the location of the Jedi. Before long, a school of large creatures rose through the sea level, generating a wave large enough to rip through the city. The other two Inquisitors attempted to hold it off but even when Vader joined them, the wave was too strong. The Ninth Sister and the others were swept away. The Ninth Sister survived the wave, as did the Inquisitors and all but two of their troopers. Vader asked of Lee-Char and the Ninth Sister said they didn't know but then told him that she had obtained the Jedi's location. They set a course for the location immediately.

As they reached the location, they caught the Jedi and his six disciples evacuating their refuge. The group of them scattered, excluding one who attacked the submarine with his blaster. Vader crushed the acolyte's helmet and they began pursuing the others. Another disciple sacrificed himself to slow them down. The submarine kept going despite this and soon reached Bel City where two more disciples waited to slow the group down. As they marched down the corridors, Vader received a transmission from Moff Wilhuff Tarkin , with a request to capture the King in return for a favor at some later date.

Vader acquiesced and ordered the rest of the squad to continue as planned while he went to find the King. The Inquisitors did as instructed and continued to find the Jedi and his last two disciples at a dead end. Sixth Brother cut one of them down and the Jedi came forward to confront them. After an exchange of words with Ferren Barr, he revealed that he not only knew that they were all former Jedi but knew the role the clones played in the destruction of the Jedi Order. The Ninth Sister rebuffed all of this saying that their past no longer affected them. Barr stated otherwise, saying that despite their turn to the dark side they were still Jedi underneath. Barr then used a mind trick on the clones, telling them to execute Order Barr's mind trick worked and the clones turned on the three Inquisitors.

After Tenth Brother was shot fatally in the chest, Barr Force jumped over the fight between the Inquisitors and clones with his acolyte Verla escaping through the only exit. Wanting to chase after them, Ninth Sister and the Sixth Brother used their combined strength to Force push the clones out of the way, with most of them falling off the deck. As the two began to make their way out, Sixth Brother betrayed Ninth Sister, severing her leg and leaving her behind as a distraction for the remaining clones so he could escape. As the Sixth Brother ran off mockingly wishing her good luck, Ninth Sister swore she would get her revenge on him.

The Ninth Sister survived Mon Cala and was given a cybernetic right leg. Halting a train carrying members of the Scrapper Guild , the Second Sister confronted the passengers. She told them of the Jedi fugitive and threatened the execution of the whole group if the Jedi was not turned over. The Second Sister then killed Prauf, and his friend Cal Kestis reacted by trying to cut her down with his lightsaber , revealing himself as the Jedi. She blocked the Jedi's attack and lifted him with the Force, throwing him to the Ninth Sister.

The Ninth Sister then held him above a ledge, proclaiming that she found the Jedi, before Cal ignited his lightsaber causing her to drop him in surprise. Kestis, however, survived the fall and landed onto another train. As he proceeded towards the front of the train, the Ninth Sister, in her ship, shot at the tracks, causing the train to fall. After Kestis was able to find safety on a platform, the Second Sister confronted him, but he escaped when Cere Junda , aboard the Stinger Mantis , intervened and extracted him before the Second Sister could finish him off.

Afterwards, the Ninth Sister reported to the Grand Inquisitor and told him that while they had failed on killing Kestis, the Padawan wouldn't be stupid enough to show his face in front of them again. Since the encounter on Bracca, the Second Sister dedicated her time to hunting Kestis while the Ninth Sister struggled to see why she found him so important. She was proven wrong when Kestis began climbing the Origin Tree there. The Ninth Sister, in her ship, confronted him at the tree, expressing her feelings of his return to Kashyyyk.

She then proceeded to chase him in her ship, shooting at the Jedi padawan periodically. However, a Shyyyo bird appeared and attacked the Ninth Sister's ship, driving it away from Kestis. After driving the Ninth Sister away, the Shyyyo bird began helping Kestis climb the Origin Tree after he tended to one of its wounds. When they were at the bird's nest, however, the Ninth Sister attacked, driving the Shyyyo bird away and confronting Kestis. She expressed her desire to kill him quickly, believing him to be an unworthy opponent.

The pair then engaged in a fierce duel, the Ninth Sister using just one blade. However, Kestis soon slashed the Ninth Sister in the left leg and arm, causing her to cry out in pain and ignite her second blade. After the two fought some more, Kestis was able to cut off her right hand, disarming her. Using the force originating from her caterised wounded hand to hold her lightsaber, stating that the Inquisitiors were trained in special abilities. The Ninth Sister continued to fight Kestis, expressing her wish for Kestis to undergo the same torture that she and the other former Jedi endured to become an Inquisitor.

As she grew more angry, Kestis outmaneuvered her and slashed her back. The Ninth Sister continued to advance on him, but Kestis flipped behind her and pushed her with the Force through the branches behind, sending her falling out of the nest. In the years following the fall of the Galactic Empire, Jedi Master Luke Skywalker traveled the galaxy to rediscover the history of the Jedi Order that had been suppressed by the Empire. During his self-imposed exile on Ahch-To , Skywalker wrote a book he titled The Secrets of the Jedi , which chronicled the information he had learnt on his travels. The Ninth Sister was one of several Inquisitors who were depicted in the book as illustrations, alongside information pertaining to the Inquisitorius.

A hulking individual, the Ninth Sister was a female Dowutin [2] with brown skin and white eyes , the left of which was lost during a training session with Darth Vader. As an Inquisitor, the Ninth Sister was dangerous and imposing. She later refused to assist Vader when he asked for her help in a fight with bounty hunters. Much like her fellow Inquisitorius, the Ninth Sister was a Jedi hunter who hunted down the remaining members of the Jedi Order. The Ninth Sister did not give much importance to losing her right hand to Cal Kestis's blade, as Vader's brutal training taught her the lesson of loss.

Her training to become an Inquisitor was a time of torture, as she described to Cal Kestis what it was like while also pointing out her role as an Inquisitor had taught her that no setback was too great. After Kestis cut off her hand, the Ninth Sister shrugged it off after the initial shock, claiming that after one loses their self a limb is easy, and considered taking him in so that he would be broken down just as she and the other Inquisitors were. The Ninth Sister was powerful in the Force, and possessed extraordinarily empathic abilities to read minds, which further enhanced her mastery on the Force.

However, she lacked the strength in combat that some of the other Inquisitors possessed, [3] although her life surpassed the Tenth Brother during the fighting in Bel City.

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