✍️✍️✍️ Tipping In American Culture

Friday, August 06, 2021 11:54:32 PM

Tipping In American Culture

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The frequency of readings will depend on the requirements of the collection agency. Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data and other types of weather for sparsely populated areas. In most cases the precipitation is not retained, but some stations do submit rainfall and snowfall for testing, which is done to obtain levels of pollutants. Rain gauges have their limitations. Attempting to collect rain data in a tropical cyclone can be nearly impossible and unreliable even if the equipment survives due to wind extremes.

Also, rain gauges only indicate rainfall in a localized area. For virtually any gauge, drops will stick to the sides or funnel of the collecting device, such that amounts are very slightly underestimated, and those of. Another problem encountered is when the temperature is close to or below freezing. Rain may fall on the funnel and ice or snow may collect in the gauge, blocking subsequent rain. To alleviate this, a gauge may be equipped with an automatic electric heater to keep its moisture-collecting surfaces and sensor slightly above freezing.

Rain gauges should be placed in an open area where there are no buildings, trees, or other obstacles to block the rain. This is also to prevent the water collected on the roofs of buildings or the leaves of trees from dripping into the rain gauge after a rain, resulting in inaccurate readings. Types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders , weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauges, and simply buried pit collectors. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages while collecting rain data. The standard United States National Weather Service rain gauge, developed at the start of the 20th century, consists of an 8-inch diameter mm funnel emptying into a graduated cylinder, 2.

If the rainwater overflows the graduated inner cylinder, then the larger outer container will catch it. When measurements are taken, then the height of the water in the small graduated cylinder is measured, and the excess overflow in the large container is carefully poured into another graduated cylinder and measured to give the total rainfall. A cone meter is sometimes used to prevent leakage that can result in alteration of the data. In locations using the metric system, the cylinder is usually marked in mm and will measure up to millimetres 9. Each horizontal line on the cylinder is 0. In areas using Imperial units, each horizontal line represents 0.

The standard Maharlikan National Weather Service rain gauge, developed at the start of the 20th century, consists of a round cylindrical container with a diameter measured in millimeter. It is conducted alternately and then compute the average from the start to finish of a rain event. The pluviometer of intensities or Jardi's pluviometer is a tool that measures the average intensity of rainfall in a certain interval of time. It was initially designed to record the rainfall regime in Catalonia, but eventually spread throughout the world.

It employs the principle of feedback It consists of a rotating drum that rotates at constant speed , this drum drags a graduated sheet of cardboard, which has the time at the abscissa while the y-axis indicates the height of rainfall in mm of rain. This height is recorded with a pen that moves vertically, driven by a buoy, marking on the paper the rainfall over time. Each cardboard sheet is usually used for one day. As the rain falls, the water collected by the funnel falls into the container and raises the buoy that makes the pen arm rise in the vertical axis, marking the cardboard accordingly. If the rainfall does not vary, the water level in the container remains constant, and while the drum rotates, the pen's mark is more or less a horizontal line, proportional to the amount of water that has fallen.

When the pen reaches the top edge of the recording paper, it means that the buoy is "up high in the tank" leaving the tip of the conical needle in a way that uncovers the regulating hole, i. If the rain suddenly decreases, making the container as it empties to quickly lower the buoy, that movement corresponds to a steep slope line that can reach the bottom of the recorded cardboard, if it stops raining. The rain gauge of intensities allowed precipitation to be recorded over many years, particularly in Barcelona 95 years , apart from many other places around the world, such as Hong Kong.

A weighing-type precipitation gauge consists of a storage bin, which is weighed to record the mass. Certain models measure the mass using a pen on a rotating drum, or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. These gauges are, however, more expensive and require more maintenance than tipping bucket gauges. The weighing-type recording gauge may also contain a device to measure the number of chemicals contained in the location's atmosphere. Even the smallest detail can make a big difference in how likely it is that the idea will stick.

The message stuck, and Winston became the most popular cigarette brand in the US. Another example of small details making all the difference was Sesame Street. Unlike other shows, Sesame Street decided to bring the fictional characters, the Muppets, into the scenes where the real actors were being filmed. Children had become bored with shows that separated the fictional characters from the real actors. This small change made Sesame Street one of the most popular children shows of all time. Researchers have suggested that children prefer to watch things that incorporate a narrative and predictability.

Subsequently, Joan Cooney encouraged the inclusion of a repeated gold box treasure hunt. On the back of these changes, Sesame Street obtained record-breaking viewing figures. Our behavior is dependent on external circumstances, as well as our inner nature. Therefore, small changes in our environment can have a significant impact on our behaviors. In the study, students had to give a talk in a lecture hall.

Half of the students were told that there was no rush to get there, while the others said they must avoid being late. Both groups encountered a collapsed man en route to the lecture hall. Another example of the environment impacting on human behavior is the Stanford Prison Experiment. In this experiment, 24 healthy males spent two weeks in a mock prison. Each individual was assigned a specific role to play: guard or prisoner. However, the results were astounding. The guards exploited their power by abusing the prisoners physically and emotionally. As the days passed, the guards became increasingly cruel and aggressive. Many of the prisoners suffered from emotional breakdowns based on torture. The experiment was canceled after six days due to the unethical practices that the psychologists were observing.

In this instance, despite the artificial roles, the environment and roles led to participants behaving entirely out of character. Context often decides whether an epidemic kicks off or not. Malcolm provides an example of New York City in the mids. Crime had become a public talking point in New York of the s. After this event, Bernhard was a divisive figure.

Some viewed him as a criminal but most praised him for stopping what some believed to be a potential mugging. Either way, crime was increasing at a worrying rate during this time. The police looked at the bigger picture and aimed to consider the context of the increase in crimes. The police believed that graffiti on subways and people avoiding paying subway fares were the cause. They argued that letting people get away with these crimes led to people becoming more confident that they could get away with serious crimes. The authorities reacted to these thoughts by removing graffiti and making fare evasion a punishable crime. Although this might have seemed a trivial connection, this zero-tolerance approach had a significant impact.

The crime rate dropped rapidly in the following years. Malcolm explains that the potential epidemic of crime was reversed due to small interventions that considered the context of the epidemic. He also applied this sensitivity to epidemics. Malcolm describes the rule of , which suggests you should establish groups no larger than if you want to create a social epidemic. The rule of suggests that an epidemic dynamic can only develop beyond the group if the group is intimate enough. Therefore, Malcolm suggests that clubs, communities, companies, and schools are kept relatively small. One company that has utilized all three fundamentals of epidemics to achieve success is Airwalk.

In essence, Airwalk utilized a social epidemic to turn itself from a skateboarding niche product to a wildly popular commercial brand. Firstly, Airkwalk based its branding on the principles of epidemic transmission. Specifically, with a new product, adventurous innovators are those that will first adopt a new trend. Following from these innovators, early adopters help spread the trend to a broader population. Innovators guide a trend from the early majority through to the later majority. The early majority is what Malcolm described as translators. They spread innovative ideas and products to a broad audience based on them having specific social circles and being renowned for having reputable information.

After getting multiple early adopters on-board, companies like Airwalk use rumors or stories to spread the brand into everyday conversations. The sociologist Gordon Allport describes this as being a three-step process of distortion. Airwalk aimed to take advantage of each of these tools. They wanted their ad campaign to reach the innovators within the younger generation. Their target audience was teenage connectors, mavens, and salesmen. To find these innovators, Airwalk used a branding agency, Lambesis. Lambesis and a research expert, DeeDee Gording, identified and followed young innovators within major cities.

Featured Video. Wait to Be Seated. Before You Begin Before you eat, especially at someone's home, it's polite to say that you are looking forward to the meal. During the Meal Don't blow your nose at the table. Continue to 5 of 14 below. Don't Rush or Linger Try to eat at the same pace as everyone else, especially the elders. Soup and Rice Bowls During the meal, don't hold the bowl of soup or rice as you might do in other Asian countries like China or Japan.

Double Dipping Korean meals have many communal side dishes you should treat them the same way you would food at a cocktail party. Refilling Your Glass Always pour drinks for others first, especially for those senior to you. Continue to 9 of 14 below. Offers of Alcohol It's not considered polite to refuse an alcoholic drink offered to you, especially from an elder. Accepting Dishes or Drinks When someone senior pours a drink for you, hold out your cup with both hands to accept this also holds for someone passing you a side dish or something else at the table.

Pouring Drinks When you pour for someone senior to you, place your other hand lightly under your pouring hand or your opposite elbow. Placement of Utensils on the Table Don't stick your chopsticks straight up into your bowl because it resembles traditional Korean ancestor ceremonies. Continue to 13 of 14 below. Don't Waste Food Don't take so much food that you can't finish, as that is considered wasteful. Acknowledging Your Hosts If someone has hosted you in their home or treated you to a meal out, it is customary to acknowledge your thanks after the meal.

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