⚡ The Great Debaters Essay

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The Great Debaters Essay

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A study involving undergraduate students demonstrated a halo effect in identifying a middle-aged man as more likely to be a philosopher than an unconventional, young woman. In the study, researchers sorted participants into either happy or sad groups using an autobiographical mood induction task in which participants reminisced on sad or happy memories. The fake writer was evaluated on intelligence and competence. The positive affect group exhibited a strong halo effect, rating the male writer significantly higher than the female writer in competence. Researchers concluded that impression formation is improved by negative affect. The systematic, attentive approach caused by negative affect reduces fundamental attribution error , the tendency to inaccurately attribute behavior to a person's internal character without taking external, situational factors into account.

Negative affect stimulates bottom-up, systematic analysis that reduces fundamental attribution error. This effect is documented in FAE research in which students evaluated a fake debater on attitude and likability based on an essay the "debater" wrote. Participants were informed that the debater was assigned a stance to take in the essay that did not necessarily reflect his views. They were also rated as unlikeable compared to debaters with popular stances, thus, demonstrating FAE. In contrast, the data for the negative affect group displayed no significant difference in ratings for debaters with popular stance and debaters with unpopular stances.

Negative affect benefits judgment in diminishing the implicit use of stereotypes by promoting closer attention to stimuli. Participants had to make rapid decisions to shoot only at targets carrying a gun. As expected, there was a significant bias against Muslim targets resulting in a tendency to shoot at them. Positive affect groups developed more aggressive tendencies toward Muslims. Multiple studies have shown that negative affectivity has a beneficial role in increasing skepticism and decreasing gullibility.

Researchers have presented findings in which students in negative affective states had improved lie detection compared to students in positive affective states. First, music was used to induce positive, negative, or neutral affect in participants. As expected, the negative affect group performed better in veracity judgments than the positive affect group who performed no better than chance. Memory has been found to have many failures that affect the accuracy of recalled memories. However, the externally focused and accommodative processing of negative affect has a positive effect on the overall improvement of memory.

This is evidenced by reduction of the misinformation effect, and the number of false memories reported. Negative affect has been shown to decrease susceptibility of incorporating misleading information, which is related to the misinformation effect. Negative mood is shown to decrease suggestibility error. This is seen through reduced amounts of incorporation of false memories when misleading information is present. On the other hand, positive affect has shown to increase susceptibility to misleading information. An experiment with undergraduate students supported these results. Participants began the study in a lecture hall and witnessed what they thought was an unexpected five-minute belligerent encounter between an intruder and the lecturer.

A week later, these participants watched a minute-long video that generated either a positive, negative or neutral mood. They then completed a brief questionnaire about the previous incident between the intruder and lecturer that they witnessed the week earlier. In this questionnaire half of the participants received questions with misleading information and the other half received questions without any misleading information. This manipulation was used to determine if participants were susceptible to suggestibility failure.

After 45 minutes of unrelated distractors participants were given a set of true or false questions which tested for false memories. Participants experiencing negative moods reported fewer numbers of false memories, whereas those experiencing positive moods reported a greater amount of false memories. This implies that positive affect promotes integration of misleading details and negative affect reduces the misinformation effect. People who experience negative affectivity following an event report fewer reconstructive false memories.

This was evidenced by two studies conducted around public events. The first surrounded the events of the televised O. Simpson trial. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires three times: one week, two months and a year after the televised verdict. These questionnaires measured participant emotion towards the verdict and the accuracy of their recalled memory of what occurred during the trial. Overall the study found that although participant response to the event outcome did not affect the quantity of remembered information, it did influence the likelihood of false memory.

Participants who were pleased with the verdict of the O. Simpson trial were more likely to falsely believe something occurred during the trial than those who were displeased with the verdict. The results from both of these experiments are consistent with the findings that negative emotion can lead to fewer memory errors and thus increased memory accuracy of events. Although negative affect has been shown to decrease the misinformation effect, the degree to which memory is improved is not enough to make a significant effect on witness testimony.

In fact, emotions, including negative affect, are shown to reduce accuracy in identifying perpetrators from photographic lineups. Researchers demonstrated this effect in an experiment in which participants watched a video that induced either negative emotion or a neutral mood. The two videos were deliberately similar except for the action of interest, which was either a mugging negative emotion or a conversation neutral emotion.

After watching one of the two videos participants are shown perpetrator lineups, which either contained the target perpetrator from the video or a foil, a person that looked similar to the target. The results revealed that the participants who watched the emotion-induced video were more likely to incorrectly identify the innocent foil than to correctly identify the perpetrator. Neutral participants were more likely to correctly identify the perpetrator in comparison to their emotional counterparts.

This demonstrates that emotional affect in forensic settings decreases accuracy of eyewitness memory. Negative affectivity can produce several interpersonal benefits. Use your time—and choose your sources—wisely! Two-thirds of our students have never debated before; over half are EFL learners. Resolved: That parents should have the right to implant GPS trackers in their children. Resolved: That the prefect system is good for students. Resolved: That the world needs more ninjas. Resolved: That Pi would make a good spy. After each round, each team gives constructive feedback to the other team on how to improve. Winning teams then face other winners—and non-winners other non-winners. The result: the teams with the least experience have the opportunity to gain more, and everyone becomes a better debater by the end of the day.

We'd like to keep you up to date with all upcoming dates, exciting tournaments, and other interesting Scholar's Cup news! You'll only need to do this once. We'd like to keep you up to date with all information about upcoming World Scholar's Cup themes and events! Stay Informed. An argument is an intellectual process. Contradiction is just the automatic gain-saying of anything the other person says. Etymology From the Latin, "to make clear". Pronunciation: ARE-gyu-ment. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Updated February 18, Cite this Article Format.

Nordquist, Richard.

If you'd like to find out how to optimise The Great Debaters Essay formula and write the best debate speech that you're capable of producing, then check out The Great Debaters Essay other article, How to Write a The Great Debaters Essay. The resolution, which changes bimonthly, asks whether a certain policy or action conforms to a specific value. The Great Debaters Essay also: The Great Debaters Essay good learning environment procedure. Cognitive psychology The Great Debaters Essay affect.

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