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A figure should be able to stand alone. Readers want to understand it without going back and forth between the figure and the text sections. How to write a good legend that makes a figure clear as day, all by itself, in a scientific paper? Use active voice, and keep it short. Make it a sentence that summarize the major result seen in the figure. Example: Hippocampal neurons derived from patients with bipolar disorder show hyperexcitability. Or, make it a phrase stating the type of analysis used. This is where things tend to get out of hand.
It is true that you should include lots of details, like assay name, antibodies used, cell type or animal model, treatments and controls, statistical tests, numbers of replicates, et cetera. The figure must be able to stand alone. You want your readers to understand it without going back to the method section. Limit what to include in the legend to the absolute minimum that is required to understand the figure. You really only need this if i the title did not state it already, or ii the figure has multiple panels or shows multiple results. Either way, contain the temptation to go on and on about your findings, and keep this part short and sweet.
Limit it to one or a few sentences that describe the key findings that are seen in the figure. Example: Patch-clamp recording on ProxeGFP-expressing neurons showed spontaneous postsynaptic currents. Side note: You might not have a choice to keep the legends short. If you are publishing with Science or Nature congratulations! An attractive, professional looking legend grabs attention. When possible, place all labels on the graphics. That will make it easier to read both the graphs and the legends. Tone down on abbreviations. If you must use them, make sure they are consistent with the text of the paper, and that they are common acronyms and not the obscure system that only your lab uses to manage the tubes. The debate over the best font for a graph legend in scientific papers has not come to an end.
Still overwhelmed by options? Legends should match the width of the figures. Place them above a table, but below a figure charts, graphs, images, etc. Legends should be left justified. Not comma, not colon. A period. An effective legend is the key to help a figure stand alone. The title should describe what the figure is about. The methods include all and no more than the necessary details to understand the figure without referring back to the body text. The results show the key findings as seen in the figure. Keep everything as short as possible. Avoid clutters, pick a good font, and position it right. Keep the legends consistent with the body text of the paper. Schafer, Leah Boyer, Maria C.
As water follows sodium, the depth of ASL will be depleted and the cilia will be left in the mucous layer. The presence of the same CFTR proteins in the pancreatic duct and sweat glands in the skin also cause symptoms in these systems. The lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis are colonized and infected by bacteria from an early age. These bacteria, which often spread among individuals with CF, thrive in the altered mucus, which collects in the small airways of the lungs. This mucus leads to the formation of bacterial microenvironments known as biofilms that are difficult for immune cells and antibiotics to penetrate.
Viscous secretions and persistent respiratory infections repeatedly damage the lung by gradually remodeling the airways, which makes infection even more difficult to eradicate. Over time, both the types of bacteria and their individual characteristics change in individuals with CF. In the initial stage, common bacteria such as S. Pseudomonas can develop special characteristics that allow the formation of large colonies, known as "mucoid" Pseudomonas , which are rarely seen in people who do not have CF.
Infection can spread by passing between different individuals with CF. As a result, individuals with CF are now routinely isolated from one another in the healthcare setting, and healthcare providers are encouraged to wear gowns and gloves when examining patients with CF to limit the spread of virulent bacterial strains. In addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use of corticosteroid treatments may also facilitate fungal growth. Although the clinical relevance of the fungal airway colonization is still a matter of debate, filamentous fungi may contribute to the local inflammatory response and therefore to the progressive deterioration of the lung function, as often happens with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis — the most common fungal disease in the context of CF, involving a Th2-driven immune response to Aspergillus species.
Cystic fibrosis may be diagnosed by many different methods, including newborn screening, sweat testing, and genetic testing. In many cases, a parent makes the diagnosis because the infant tastes salty. Due to these false positives , CF screening in newborns can be controversial. The most commonly used form of confirmatory testing is the sweat test. Sweat testing involves application of a medication that stimulates sweating pilocarpine. To deliver the medication through the skin, iontophoresis is used, whereby one electrode is placed onto the applied medication and an electric current is passed to a separate electrode on the skin. The resultant sweat is then collected on filter paper or in a capillary tube and analyzed for abnormal amounts of sodium and chloride.
People with CF have increased amounts of them in their sweat. In contrast, people with CF have less thiocyanate and hypothiocyanite in their saliva  and mucus Banfi et al. In the case of milder forms of CF, transepithelial potential difference measurements can be helpful. People with CF may be listed in a disease registry that allows researchers and doctors to track health results and identify candidates for clinical trials. Women who are pregnant or couples planning a pregnancy can have themselves tested for the CFTR gene mutations to determine the risk that their child will be born with CF.
Testing is typically performed first on one or both parents and, if the risk of CF is high, testing on the fetus is performed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends all people thinking of becoming pregnant be tested to see if they are a carrier. Because development of CF in the fetus requires each parent to pass on a mutated copy of the CFTR gene and because CF testing is expensive, testing is often performed initially on one parent. If testing shows that parent is a CFTR gene mutation carrier, the other parent is tested to calculate the risk that their children will have CF.
CF can result from more than a thousand different mutations. If a family has a known uncommon mutation, specific screening for that mutation can be performed. Because not all known mutations are found on current tests, a negative screen does not guarantee that a child will not have CF. During pregnancy, testing can be performed on the placenta chorionic villus sampling or the fluid around the fetus amniocentesis. However, chorionic villus sampling has a risk of fetal death of one in and amniocentesis of one in ;  a recent study has indicated this may be much lower, about one in 1, Economically, for carrier couples of cystic fibrosis, when comparing preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGD with natural conception NC followed by prenatal testing and abortion of affected pregnancies, PGD provides net economic benefits up to a maternal age around 40 years, after which NC, prenatal testing, and abortion have higher economic benefit.
While no cures for CF are known, several treatment methods are used. The management of CF has improved significantly over the past 70 years. While infants born with it 70 years ago would have been unlikely to live beyond their first year, infants today are likely to live well into adulthood. Recent advances in the treatment of cystic fibrosis have meant that individuals with cystic fibrosis can live a fuller life less encumbered by their condition.
The cornerstones of management are the proactive treatment of airway infection , and encouragement of good nutrition and an active lifestyle. Pulmonary rehabilitation as a management of CF continues throughout a person's life, and is aimed at maximizing organ function, and therefore the quality of life. Occupational therapists use energy conservation techniques ECT in the rehabilitation process for patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Because of the wide variation in disease symptoms, treatment typically occurs at specialist multidisciplinary centers and is tailored to the individual.
Targets for therapy are the lungs, gastrointestinal tract including pancreatic enzyme supplements , the reproductive organs including assisted reproductive technology , and psychological support. The most consistent aspect of therapy in CF is limiting and treating the lung damage caused by thick mucus and infection, with the goal of maintaining quality of life. Intravenous , inhaled , and oral antibiotics are used to treat chronic and acute infections. Mechanical devices and inhalation medications are used to alter and clear the thickened mucus.
These therapies, while effective, can be extremely time-consuming. Oxygen therapy at home is recommended in those with significant low oxygen levels. Many people with CF are on one or more antibiotics at all times, even when healthy, to prophylactically suppress infection. Antibiotics are absolutely necessary whenever pneumonia is suspected or a noticeable decline in lung function is seen, and are usually chosen based on the results of a sputum analysis and the person's past response. This prolonged therapy often necessitates hospitalization and insertion of a more permanent IV such as a peripherally inserted central catheter or Port-a-Cath.
Inhaled therapy with antibiotics such as tobramycin , colistin , and aztreonam is often given for months at a time to improve lung function by impeding the growth of colonized bacteria. Antibiotics by mouth such as ciprofloxacin or azithromycin are given to help prevent infection or to control ongoing infection. All these factors related to the antibiotics use, the chronicity of the disease, and the emergence of resistant bacteria demand more exploration for different strategies such as antibiotic adjuvant therapy. Aerosolized medications that help loosen secretions include dornase alfa and hypertonic saline. Denufosol , an investigational drug, opens an alternative chloride channel, helping to liquefy mucus.
Ivacaftor is a medication taken by mouth for the treatment of CF due to a number of specific mutations responsive to ivacaftor-induced CFTR protein enhancement. As such, concomitant use is not recommended. Ursodeoxycholic acid , a bile salt , has been used, however there is insufficient data to show if it is effective. It is uncertain whether vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation have any effect on eye and skin problems caused by vitamin A deficiency. There is no strong evidence that people with cystic fibrosis can prevent osteoporosis by increasing their intake of vitamin D. Robust evidence regarding the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis is lacking as of Various studies have examined the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for people with cystic fibrosis but the evidence is uncertain whether it has any benefits or adverse effects.
Several mechanical techniques are used to dislodge sputum and encourage its expectoration. One technique good for short-term airway clearance is chest physiotherapy where a respiratory therapist percusses an individual's chest by hand several times a day, to loosen up secretions. This "percussive effect" can be administered also through specific devices that use chest wall oscillation or intrapulmonary percussive ventilator. Other methods such as biphasic cuirass ventilation , and associated clearance mode available in such devices, integrate a cough assistance phase, as well as a vibration phase for dislodging secretions.
These are portable and adapted for home use. Another technique is positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy that consists of providing a back pressure to the airways during expiration. This effect is provided by devices that consists of a mask or a mouthpiece in which a resistance is applied only on the expiration phase. As lung disease worsens, mechanical breathing support may become necessary. Individuals with CF may need to wear special masks at night to help push air into their lungs. These machines, known as bilevel positive airway pressure BiPAP ventilators, help prevent low blood oxygen levels during sleep.
Non-invasive ventilators may be used during physical therapy to improve sputum clearance. For children, preliminary studies show massage therapy may help people and their families' quality of life. Some lung infections require surgical removal of the infected part of the lung. If this is necessary many times, lung function is severely reduced. Lung transplantation may become necessary for individuals with CF as lung function and exercise tolerance decline. Although single lung transplantation is possible in other diseases, individuals with CF must have both lungs replaced because the remaining lung might contain bacteria that could infect the transplanted lung.
Among adults with CF, median survival posttransplant is about 9 years. Newborns with intestinal obstruction typically require surgery, whereas adults with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome typically do not. Treatment of pancreatic insufficiency by replacement of missing digestive enzymes allows the duodenum to properly absorb nutrients and vitamins that would otherwise be lost in the feces. However, the best dosage and form of pancreatic enzyme replacement is unclear, as are the risks and long-term effectiveness of this treatment.
So far, no large-scale research involving the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in adults with cystic fibrosis has been conducted. This is likely because the vast majority of people with cystic fibrosis do not live long enough to develop clinically significant atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. Diabetes is the most common nonpulmonary complication of CF. It mixes features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and is recognized as a distinct entity, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
Bisphosphonates taken by mouth or intravenously can be used to improve the bone mineral density in people with cystic fibrosis. Poor growth may be avoided by insertion of a feeding tube for increasing food energy through supplemental feeds or by administration of injected growth hormone. Sinus infections are treated by prolonged courses of antibiotics. The development of nasal polyps or other chronic changes within the nasal passages may severely limit airflow through the nose, and over time reduce the person's sense of smell. Sinus surgery is often used to alleviate nasal obstruction and to limit further infections. Nasal steroids such as fluticasone propionate are used to decrease nasal inflammation. Female infertility may be overcome by assisted reproduction technology, particularly embryo transfer techniques.
Male infertility caused by absence of the vas deferens may be overcome with testicular sperm extraction , collecting sperm cells directly from the testicles. If the collected sample contains too few sperm cells to likely have a spontaneous fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be performed. Whether taking antioxidants affects outcomes is unclear. Physical exercise is usually part of outpatient care for people with cystic fibrosis. Due to the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics, ototoxicity is common. Symptoms may include "tinnitus, hearing loss, hyperacusis, aural fullness, dizziness, and vertigo".
The prognosis for cystic fibrosis has improved due to earlier diagnosis through screening and better treatment and access to health care. In , the median age of survival of children with CF in the United States was six months. Chronic illnesses can be difficult to manage. CF is a chronic illness that affects the "digestive and respiratory tracts resulting in generalized malnutrition and chronic respiratory infections".
According to Schmitz and Goldbeck , CF significantly increases emotional stress on both the individual and the family, "and the necessary time-consuming daily treatment routine may have further negative effects on quality of life". As Merck Manual notes, "with appropriate support, most patients can make an age-appropriate adjustment at home and school. Despite myriad problems, the educational, occupational, and marital successes of patients are impressive. Furthermore, there are many ways to enhance the quality of life in CF patients. Exercise is promoted to increase lung function. Integrating an exercise regimen into the CF patient's daily routine can significantly improve quality of life.
Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive disease among people of European heritage. In Canada, about 4, people have CF. Although technically a rare disease, CF is ranked as one of the most widespread life-shortening genetic diseases. It is most common among nations in the Western world. An exception is Finland , where only one in 80 people carries a CF mutation.
In contrast, only one in 15, African American children suffered from it, and in Asian Americans, the rate was even lower at one in 32, Cystic fibrosis is diagnosed equally in males and females. For reasons that remain unclear, data have shown that males tend to have a longer life expectancy than females,   though recent studies suggest this gender gap may no longer exist, perhaps due to improvements in health care facilities. The distribution of CF alleles varies among populations. CF is known to occur in only 20 families pedigrees in Finland. Other common autosomal recessive diseases such as sickle-cell anemia have been found to protect carriers from other diseases, an evolutionary trade-off known as heterozygote advantage. Resistance to the following have all been proposed as possible sources of heterozygote advantage:.
CF is supposed to have appeared about 3, BC because of migration of peoples, gene mutations, and new conditions in nourishment. In the 19th century, Carl von Rokitansky described a case of fetal death with meconium peritonitis , a complication of meconium ileus associated with CF. Meconium ileus was first described in by Karl Landsteiner. She was the first to describe the characteristic cystic fibrosis of the pancreas and to correlate it with the lung and intestinal disease prominent in CF. In , Paul di Sant'Agnese discovered abnormalities in sweat electrolytes; a sweat test was developed and improved over the next decade. The first linkage between CF and another marker Paroxonase was found in by Hans Eiberg , indicating that only one locus exists for CF.
Riordan on the seventh chromosome. Subsequent research has found over 1, different mutations that cause CF. Because mutations in the CFTR gene are typically small, classical genetics techniques had been unable to accurately pinpoint the mutated gene. Chromosome walking and chromosome jumping techniques were then used to identify and sequence the gene. CF represents a classic example of how a human genetic disorder was elucidated strictly by the process of forward genetics.
Gene therapy has been explored as a potential cure for CF. Results from clinical trials have shown limited success as of [update] , and using gene therapy as routine therapy is not suggested. The focus of much CF gene therapy research is aimed at trying to place a normal copy of the CFTR gene into affected cells. Transferring the normal CFTR gene into the affected epithelium cells would result in the production of functional CFTR protein in all target cells, without adverse reactions or an inflammation response. However, both methods were found to be relatively inefficient treatment options,  mainly because very few cells take up the vector and express the gene, so the treatment has little effect.
Additionally, problems have been noted in cDNA recombination, such that the gene introduced by the treatment is rendered unusable. Phage therapy is being studied for multidrug resistant bacteria in people with CF. A number of small molecules that aim at compensating various mutations of the CFTR gene are under development. CFTR modulator therapies have been used in place of other types of genetic therapies. These therapies focus on the expression of a genetic mutation instead of the mutated gene itself. Modulators are split into two classes: potentiators and correctors. Potentiators act on the CFTR ion channels that are embedded in the cell membrane, and these types of drugs help open up the channel to allow transmembrane flow.
Correctors are meant to assist in the transportation of nascent proteins, a protein that is formed by ribosomes before it is morphed into a specific shape, to the cell surface to be implemented into the cell membrane. Most target the transcription stage of genetic expression. One approach has been to try and develop medication that get the ribosome to overcome the stop codon and produce a full-length CFTR protein. These drugs target nonsense mutations such as GX, which consists of the amino acid glycine in position being replaced by a stop codon.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics interfere with protein synthesis and error-correction. In some cases, they can cause the cell to overcome a premature stop codon by inserting a random amino acid, thereby allowing expression of a full-length protein. Future research for these modulators is focused on the cellular targets that can be effected by a change in a gene's expression.
It has previously been shown that inter-species interactions are an important contributor to the pathology of CF lung infections. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Autosomal recessive disease mostly affecting the lungs. Medical condition. Play media. See also: List of people diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. PMID S2CID Cystic Fibrosis. CRC Press. ISBN Archived from the original on 8 September Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. Cystic Fibrosis 3rd ed. London: Hodder Arnold. Philadelphia: F. Davis Co. CiteSeerX PMC Clinical Medicine. European Journal of Endocrinology. The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Respiratory Care. Archived PDF from the original on 15 July The Indian Journal of Medical Research. Archived from the original PDF on 5 July Retrieved 10 April October Consultant for Pediatricians. Robbins Basic Pathology. The New England Journal of Medicine. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Journal of Infection and Public Health. Archivos de Bronconeumologia in Spanish. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Clinics in Chest Medicine Review.
Archives of Disease in Childhood. British Medical Bulletin. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. November Human Reproduction Update. Fetal and maternal outcome". Pediatric Pulmonology. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Human Mutation. July The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Bibcode : Natur. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. Medical Hypotheses. Bibcode : PNAS.. January FEBS Letters. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology.Most patients required oxygen therapy and a minority of Wang Lungs Multiple Values patients needed invasive ventilation or even Wang Lungs Multiple Values membrane oxygenation. Wang Lungs Multiple Values More. Walsh, C.