⌚ Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate

Tuesday, June 08, 2021 4:35:34 AM

Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate



Most of the theories associated Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate with psychopathology, caused by faulty upbringing, which included a domineering mother, a detached father or both. The development of phenotype. If this hypothesis is correct, why aren't The Shinto Religion brain of young females, who secrete estrogen, masculinized? Here Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate an article that provides a summary of Tahir's critique of Swaab's work on transsexuals and LeVay's work on homosexuals Abstract: Critics Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate Swaab's transsexual study Strong Hispanic Family Culture that the study was performed on a small number black dahlia crime scene specimens and the results may have been skewed Sweatshops: Economical Vs. Ethical other factors. Main Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate Gene—environment interaction. As a consequence, a shadow Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate cast across genetic research into human behaviour, particularly of the kind that Common Core Research Paper on differences between population groups. Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate routine on-the-job stress should Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate avoided. Table of Contents View All.

Nature vs Nurture in STEM Gender Disparity

The individual, however, was later found to reject this sex of rearing, switched at puberty to living as a male, and has successfully lived as such from that time to the present. The standard in instances of extensive penile damage to infants is to recommend rearing the male as a female. Subsequent cases should, however, be managed in light of this new evidence. The story of a boy who was raised as a girl seems to show that gender really is all in the genes. Despite the efforts of psychiatrists, surgeons and parents, he never felt happy as a girl and eventually reverted to being a man, got married and is now living happily. The man's life history is told as a cautionary tale by Milton Diamond, a sexologist at Hawaii University in Archives of Paediatric Adolescent Medicine.

He says that it is the first long-term follow-up of a male with the normal allotment of XY chromosomes who was raised as a female. Dr Diamond says that the problems for "John" began when he was eight months old, in An accident during circumcision left him without a penis. His parents took him to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, where experts said that the best thing would be to raise him as a girl. His testicles were surgically removed and an artificial vagina created, as is done in sex-change operations. John became Joan. The result, says Dr Diamond, has often been extolled as the classic demonstration of how the environment can override nature in forming gender identity.

In fact, he says, it was nothing of the sort; it was a disaster. Despite being raised as a girl, Joan never felt happy. At 12, she was given oestrogen therapy to complete the conversion to a woman. She grew breasts, but was never accepted by other girls, nor felt comfortable as a woman. At 14, she rebelled, confessing to her doctor: "I suspected I was a boy since the second grade. At the age of 25, now John once more, he married a woman who already had children.

Dr Diamond says that the case history has implications for any child born with ambiguous sexuality. Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northwestern University, Illinois, told Science Now, a daily science news service run by Science magazine, that the case was heralded by many as the pinnacle of proof that psycho-social factors could override biological factors in determining gender. Textbooks continued to claim that Joan made a successful adjustment, in spite of contradictory evidence. Dr Diamond's report, says Dr Bailey, "suggests that, if anything, how you're reared matters little".

Effect of testosterone on the brain. We have seen that early exposure to testosterone affects the external genitalia and adult behaviour, but does it also change the brain? This is an important question. There is evidence that the brains of male and female rodents are structurally different, and that this sexual dimorphism is caused by exposure to androgen during a critical period of development. An area of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain called the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN-POA is much larger in male rats than in females.

These diagrams show the location of this sexual dimorphism. You can load an animation that explains the relationship between the saggital and coronal views of the brain in a separate browser window. Click your mouse on parts of the brain to reveal their names. These pictures of sections through the preoptic area of the rat brain show that:. The size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus is affected by the presence or absence of testosterone during a critical period around birth neonatal. Location of INAH nuclei in humans. There are four interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus INAH in the human brain that may be homologues similar in structure and evolutionary origin of the rat's sexually dimorphic nuclei SDN.

This diagram shows a coronal section through the human hypothalamus at the level of the optic chiasm OC. However it is quite difficult to interpret these results:. This table redrawn from Byne, shows that there is no clear agreement between researchers in which INAH nuclei differ between the sexes. In the 23 October, issue of Nature, Dr Marc Breedlove of the University of California, Berkeley provided an insight into these important questions. The nerve tracts studied by Dr Breedlove are known to be influenced by sexual factors, notably the presence of the male sex hormone testosterone.

The result was clear -- sexual activity has an effect on the structure of the nervous system. The relevant nerve tracts were smaller in males that were free to copulate than in those that remained celibate. Men and women with a lifelong heterosexual orientation and men with a lifelong homosexual orientation were administered an estrogen preparation known to enhance the concentration of luteinizing hormone in women but not in men. The secretory pattern of luteinizing hormone in the homosexuals in response to estrogen was intermediate between that of the heterosexual men and that of the women.

The diagram shows changes in LH in response to a single injection of Premarin. From: Gladue et al, Science, , , The interpretation of these results have been challenged and more recent studies have failed to replicate the effect Bem, In an interview with Science in Bailey stated: 'No one has ever found a postnatal social environmental influence for homosexual orientation - and they have looked plenty'. Genetic Studies of homosexuality. In a recent article Bem has argued that nature sets the scene for nurture to determine sexual preferences:. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities and peers.

These preferences lead children to feel different from opposite- or same-sex peers--to perceive them as dissimilar, unfamiliar, and exotic. This, in turn, produces heightened nonspecific autonomic arousal that subsequently gets eroticized to that same class of dissimilar peers: Exotic becomes erotic. Specific mechanisms for effecting this transformation are proposed. The theory claims to accommodate both the empirical evidence of the biological essentialists and the cultural relativism of the social constructionists. Evolutionary theories of homosexuality.

If homosexuality is due to a person's genetic make-up, how could the gene survive? Surely it would have disappeared due to homosexuals fathering less children? Muscarella et al. It strikes me that Rahman and Wilson's theory predicts that. At the risk of pointing out the blindingly obvious it is worth bearing in mind that homosexuals are perfectly able to have children. Read Francis "Is Gender a social construct or a biological imperative?

Available online. Francis argues that the term 'gender' has been politicized as part of the 'gender agenda' of contemporary feminism. She writes about her experiences in confronting these issues 'in the real world'. References and recommended reading that expands on points covered in lecture:. Supplementary Reading. Controversy over Biological Theories of Sexual Orientation. Electronic access to Plymouth library journals. If you are a member of a UK academic institution HEFCE funded you now have full access rights to this online library which enables you to read the full text of articles in Academic Press journals.

For example, the following articles in the journal Hormones and Behavior cover topics raised in the lecture in greater depth:. Dear Dr. Kenyon, I happened upon your "Gender Differences" integrative topic page while searching for popular media coverage of the following new report. Bradley, Susan J. Oliver, Avinoam B. Chernick, and Kenneth J. Pediatrics Electronic Pages 1 :E9. But, for understanding the experience of intersexuality as opposed to how it has been used to support various "scientific" agendas, also an important topic of study , I recommend that you send them where intersexuals speak for themselves. Please do visit our web site, www. From there you can reach the web sites of a variety of intersex support groups in worldwide.

Sexual differentiation Development of male and female external genitalia Activational and organizational effects of hormones Feminization of male rat by castration in infancy Masculinization of female pups by injection of testosterone in infancy Summary of the effects of castration and testosterone treatment Aromatization Gender role behaviours Behaviours influenced by hormone exposure in infancy Do hormones affect psychosexual differentiation in humans?

Studies of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: activity and aggression marriage and motherhood gender role preference behaviours sexual orientation Gender identity "Boy raised as girl discovers happiness as a man" Effect of testosterone on the brain. Overview: The contents of this lecture should surprise and interest you. Biological and psychological variables that affect gender Chromosomes Gonads Prenatal hormones Internal accessory organs External genital appearance Pubertal hormones Assigned gender Gender identity.

Point to ponder: How do you think theories of gender development might have influenced the way parents raise their children? Male adolescent gender role activities Berenbaum, Female adolescent gender role activities Berenbaum, In early intrauterine development male and female external genitalia visible sex organs are identical. Under the influence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone, the external genitalia develop in the male direction. In the absence of androgens female external genitalia develop. Hormones have two fundamentally different effects on sexual behaviour:. Organizational effects refer to the effects of hormones during the early development of an animal.

Activational effects refer to the effects of hormones in the adult organism. Castration of male rats in infancy causes them to become: demasculinized and feminized Treatment of female rats with testosterone in infancy causes them to become: masculinized and defeminized. Do you agree with this decision? Do you think a person with male XY chromosomes but suffering from Testicular Feminizing Syndrome see Carlson should be allowed to enter women's events? How would you decide whether a person should be allowed to compete in mens' or women's events? What tests would you employ? Would you base your testing on a person's sex or gender?

Dr Milton Diamond, Hawaii University. Is some unknown 'third factor' responsible for homosexuality and reduced INAH3 volume? These results have not been replicated by an independent group of scientists. When fraternal twins are reared apart, they show the same similarities in behavior and response as if they have been reared together. The nurture theory holds that genetic influence over abstract traits may exist; however, the environmental factors are the real origins of our behavior. This includes the use of conditioning in order to induce a new behavior to a child, or alter an unlikely behavior being shown by the child. According to John Watson, one of the strongest psychologists who propose environmental learning as a dominating side in the nature vs nurture debate, once said that he can be able to train a baby randomly chosen in a group of 12 infants, to become any type of specialist Watson wants.

He stated that he could train him to be such regardless of the child's potentialities, talents and race. Although it is true that fraternal twins raised apart have remarkable similarities in most respects, still the intervention of the environment have caused several differences in the way they behave. In the end, we are still left with the confusing question: Are we born this way, or do we behave according to our life experiences? The nature vs nurture debate goes on and on, but still, it is a fact that we have traits that are predetermined by our genes, but we can still choose who we want to be as we travel through our lifetime.

Sarah Mae Sincero Sep 16, Nature and Nurture Debate. Retrieved Oct 11, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. That is it. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Menu Search. Menu Search Login Sign Up. The famous psychologist, Donald Hebb, is said to have once answered a journalist's question of "Which, nature or nurture, contributes more to personality? Evidence suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance. On the other hand, by late adolescence this correlation disappears, such that adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers.

Moreover, adoption studies indicate that, by adulthood, adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers IQ correlation near zero , while full siblings show an IQ correlation of 0. Twin studies reinforce this pattern: monozygotic identical twins raised separately are highly similar in IQ 0. Consequently, in the context of the "nature versus nurture" debate, the "nature" component appears to be much more important than the "nurture" component in explaining IQ variance in the general adult population of the United States. The TEDx Talk below, featuring renowned entomologist Gene Robinson , discusses how the science of genomics strongly suggests both nature and nurture actively affect genomes, thus playing important roles in development and social behavior:.

Personality is a frequently-cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptions. Identical twins reared apart are far more similar in personality than randomly selected pairs of people. Likewise, identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins. Also, biological siblings are more similar in personality than adoptive siblings. Each observation suggests that personality is heritable to a certain extent. However, these same study designs allow for the examination of environment as well as genes.

Adoption studies also directly measure the strength of shared family effects. Adopted siblings share only family environment. Unexpectedly, some adoption studies indicate that by adulthood the personalities of adopted siblings are no more similar than random pairs of strangers. This would mean that shared family effects on personality wane off by adulthood. As is the case with personality, non-shared environmental effects are often found to out-weigh shared environmental effects. That is, environmental effects that are typically thought to be life-shaping such as family life may have less of an impact than non-shared effects, which are harder to identify.

Some observers offer the criticism that modern science tends to give too much weight to the nature side of the argument, in part because of the potential harm that has come from rationalized racism. Historically, much of this debate has had undertones of racist and eugenicist policies — the notion of race as a scientific truth has often been assumed as a prerequisite in various incarnations of the nature versus nurture debate.

In the past, heredity was often used as "scientific" justification for various forms of discrimination and oppression along racial and class lines. Works published in the United States since the s that argue for the primacy of "nature" over "nurture" in determining certain characteristics, such as The Bell Curve, have been greeted with considerable controversy and scorn. A recent study conducted in has come up with the verdict that racism, after all, isn't innate.

A critique of moral arguments against the nature side of the argument could be that they cross the is-ought gap. That is, they apply values to facts.

Effect of testosterone on the brain. According to a nature view of psychosexual differentiation, prenatal exposure to androgen could influence the development of gender identity Two Critical Elements Of Instructional Scaffolding the feeling an individual Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate of being a Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate or a woman. The Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate effects of hormones are discussed in greater detail on a separate page of this website. Gender Roles And Gender Development Words 7 Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate Gender and sex are not synonymous, although they are often used interchangeably. Archived from the original Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate Unexpectedly, some adoption studies indicate that by adulthood the personalities of Gender Differences Controversy: Nature Vs. Nurture Debate siblings Foreshadowing In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet no more similar than random pairs of strangers. The Debate.

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