✎✎✎ Why Should Animals Be Kept In Zoos
Do you think that zoos are an effective way to increase awareness about animal life? Advantages of application forms as PDF Printable version. Why should animals be kept in zoos can be good for educational why should animals be kept in zoos to let why should animals be kept in zoos know about Essay On Catcher In The Rye And PTSD wide range of animals. Captivity is very harsh on them. A Different NatureWhy should animals be kept in zoos There are over 10, zoos across the globe, and they accumulate more than million visitors annually.
Why We Need Zoos - Gabriela Mastromonaco - TEDxToronto
There is more to treating animals in an appropriate way than keeping them healthy: It's possible and used to be common for zoos to keep animals in perfect physical shape, but in conditions that cause the animals to display serious behavioural problems. But where a zoo is keeping animals in order to preserve a species that is under threat in the wild, and treats its animals in an appropriate way, then this is morally acceptable from the welfare point of view. Some animal activists argue that the conservation argument is flawed.
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The Works Progress Administration and similar New Deal government agencies helped greatly in the construction, renovation, and expansion of zoos when the Great Depression severely reduced local budgets. It was "a new deal for animals. The Atlanta zoo , founded in , suffered neglect. By it was ranked among the ten worst zoos in the U. Systematic reform by put it on the list of the ten best. By , the United States featured accredited zoos and aquariums across 45 states, accommodating , animals, and 6, species out of which about 1, are endangered. They attract over million visits a year and have special programs for schools.
They are organized by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. In , fearing American bombing attacks, the government ordered the zoo to destroy dangerous animals that might escape. When ecology emerged as a matter of public interest in the s, a few zoos began to consider making conservation their central role, with Gerald Durrell of the Jersey Zoo , George Rabb of Brookfield Zoo , and William Conway of the Bronx Zoo Wildlife Conservation Society leading the discussion.
From then on, zoo professionals became increasingly aware of the need to engage themselves in conservation programs, and the American Zoo Association soon said that conservation was its highest priority. The Detroit Zoo , for example, stopped its elephant show in , and its chimpanzee show in , acknowledging that the trainers had probably abused the animals to get them to perform. Mass destruction of wildlife habitat has yet to cease all over the world and many species such as elephants , big cats, penguins , tropical birds, primates, rhinos , exotic reptiles, and many others are in danger of dying out. Many of today's zoos hope to stop or slow the decline of many endangered species and see their primary purpose as breeding endangered species in captivity and reintroducing them into the wild.
Modern zoos also aim to help teach visitors the importance on animal conservation, often through letting visitors witness the animals firsthand. However, zoo advocates argue that their efforts make a difference in wildlife conservation and education. Human beings were sometimes displayed in cages along with non-human animals, to illustrate the differences between people of European and non-European origin.
The exhibit was intended as an example of the "missing link" between the orangutan and white man. It triggered protests from the city's clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked to see Benga. Human beings were also displayed in cages during the Paris Colonial Exposition , and as late as in a "Congolese village" display at Expo '58 in Brussels. Zoo animals live in enclosures that often attempt to replicate their natural habitats or behavioral patterns, for the benefit of both the animals and visitors.
Nocturnal animals are often housed in buildings with a reversed light-dark cycle, i. Special climate conditions may be created for animals living in extreme environments, such as penguins. Special enclosures for birds , mammals , insects , reptiles , fish , and other aquatic life forms have also been developed. Some zoos have walk-through exhibits where visitors enter enclosures of non-aggressive species, such as lemurs , marmosets , birds, lizards , and turtles.
Visitors are asked to keep to paths and avoid showing or eating foods that the animals might snatch. Some zoos keep animals in larger, outdoor enclosures, confining them with moats and fences, rather than in cages. Safari parks , also known as zoo parks and lion farms, allow visitors to drive through them and come in close proximity to the animals. The first safari park was Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, opened by the Zoological Society of London in which today covers acres 2. One of two state-supported zoo parks in North Carolina is the 2,acre 8. The first public aquarium was opened at the London Zoo in This was followed by the opening of public aquaria in continental Europe e. Roadside zoos are found throughout North America , particularly in remote locations.
They are often small, for-profit zoos, often intended to attract visitors to some other facility, such as a gas station. The animals may be trained to perform tricks, and visitors are able to get closer to them than in larger zoos. A petting zoo, also called petting farms or children's zoos, features a combination of domestic animals and wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. To ensure the animals' health, the food is supplied by the zoo, either from vending machines or a kiosk nearby. An animal theme park is a combination of an amusement park and a zoo, mainly for entertaining and commercial purposes. Marine mammal parks such as Sea World and Marineland are more elaborate dolphinariums keeping whales , and containing additional entertainment attractions.
Another kind of animal theme park contains more entertainment and amusement elements than the classical zoo, such as stage shows, roller coasters, and mythical creatures. By the year most animals being displayed in zoos were the offspring of other zoo animals. When animals are transferred between zoos, they usually spend time in quarantine, and are given time to acclimatize to their new enclosures which are often designed to mimic their natural environment. For example, some species of penguins may require refrigerated enclosures. Guidelines on necessary care for such animals is published in the International Zoo Yearbook. Especially in large animals, a limited number of spaces are available in zoos. As a consequence, various management tools are used to preserve the space for the genetically most important individuals and to reduce the risk of inbreeding.
Contraception can be an effective way to limit a population's breeding. However it may also have health repercussions and can be difficult or even impossible to reverse in some animals. In recent decades the practice of selling animals from certified zoos has declined. The zoo argued that its genes already were well-represented in captivity, making the giraffe unsuitable for future breeding. There were offers to adopt it and an online petition to save it had many thousand signatories, but the culling proceeded. The position of most modern zoos in Australasia , Asia , Europe , and North America , particularly those with scientific societies, is that they display wild animals primarily for the conservation of endangered species , as well as for research purposes and education, and secondarily for the entertainment of visitors,  .
The Zoological Society of London states in its charter that its aim is "the advancement of Zoology and Animal Physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the Animal Kingdom. In the U. Including that captive populations are often smaller than wild ones and that the space available to each animal is often less than in the wild. Conservation programs all over the world fight to protect species from going extinct, but many conservation programs are underfunded and under-represented.
Conservation programs can struggle to fight bigger issues like habitat loss and illness. It often takes a lot of funding and long time periods to rebuild degraded habitats, both of which are scarce in conservation efforts. The current state of conservation programs cannot rely solely on situ on-site conservation plans alone, ex situ off-site conservation may therefore provide a suitable alternative. Off-site conservation relies on zoos, national parks, or other care facilities to support the rehabilitation of the animals and their populations. Zoos benefit conservation by providing suitable habitats and care to endangered animals. When properly regulated, they present a safe, clean environment for the animals to increase populations sizes.
A study on amphibian conservation and zoos addressed these problems by writing,. Whilst addressing in situ threats, particularly habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, is of primary importance; for many amphibian species in situ conservation alone will not be enough, especially in light of current un-mitigatable threats that can impact populations very rapidly such as chytridiomycosis [an infectious fungal disease]. Ex situ programmes can complement in situ activities in a number of ways including maintaining genetically and demographically viable populations while threats are either better understood or mitigated in the wild .
The breeding of endangered species is coordinated by cooperative breeding programmes containing international studbooks and coordinators, who evaluate the roles of individual animals and institutions from a global or regional perspective, and there are regional programmes all over the world for the conservation of endangered species. Besides conservation of captive species, large zoos may form a suitable environment for wild native animals such as herons to live in or visit. A colony of black-crowned night herons has regularly summered at the National Zoo in Washington, D.
In modern, well-regulated zoos, breeding is controlled to maintain a self-sustaining, global captive population. This is not the case in some less well-regulated zoos, often based in poorer regions. One 2-year study indicated that of 19, mammals that left accredited zoos in the U. The welfare of zoo animals varies widely. Many zoos work to improve their animal enclosures and make it fit the animals' needs, but constraints such as size and expense can complicate this. Substandard enclosures can lead to decreased lifespans, caused by factors as human diseases, unsafe materials in the cages and possible escape attempts Bendow However, when zoos take time to think about the animal's welfare, zoos can become a place of refuge.
There are animals that are injured in the wild and are unable to survive on their own, but in the zoos they can live out the rest of their lives healthy and happy McGaffin. In recent years, some zoos have chosen to move out some larger animals because they do not have the space available to provide an adequate enclosure for them Lemonic, McDowell, and Bjerklie An issue with animal welfare in zoos is that best animal husbandry practices are often not completely known. Especially for species that are only kept in a small number of zoos. Many modern zoos attempt to improve animal welfare by providing more space and behavioural enrichments.
This often involves housing the animals in naturalistic enclosures that allow the animals to express more of their natural behaviours, such as roaming and foraging. Whilst many zoos have been working hard on this change, in some zoos, some enclosures still remain barren concrete enclosures or other minimally enriched cages. Sometimes animals are unable to perform certain behaviors in zoos, like seasonal migration or traveling over large distances.
Whether these behaviors are necessary for good welfare however is unclear. Some behaviors are seen as essential for an animal's welfare whilst others aren't. A study in for example found that Asian elephants in zoos covered similar or higher walking distances then sedentary wild populations. Animals in zoos can exhibit behaviors that are abnormal in their frequency, intensity, or would not normally be part of their behavioural repertoire. Whilst these types of behaviors can be a sign of bad welfare and stress, this isn't necessarily the case. Other measurements or behavioral research is advised before determining whether an animal performing stereotypical behavior is living in bad welfare or not.
However they also noted that in more modern naturalistic exhibits, these behaviors could completely disappear. A study of a group of elephants in Planckendael showed that the older wild-caught animals displayed many stereotypical behaviors. These elephants had spend part of their lifes either in a circus or in other substandard enclosures. On the other hand the elephants born in the modern facilities that had lived in a herd their whole life barely displayed any stereotypical behaviors at all.
The influence on a zoological environment on animal's longevity is not straightforward. This has been refuted by other studies however. For example studies show that captive-bred elephants already have a lower mortality risk then wild-caught ones. Climatic conditions can make it difficult to keep some animals in zoos in some locations. For example, Alaska Zoo had an elephant named Maggie. She was housed in a small, indoor enclosure because the outdoor temperature was too low.
Tsetse flies have invaded zoos that have been established in the tsetse zone. More concerning, tsetse-borne species of trypanosomes have entered zoos outside the traditional tsetse zone in infected animals imported and added to their collections. Whether these can be controlled depends on several factors: Vale found that the technique used in placing attractants was important; and Green , Torr , Torr et al , and Torr et al found the availability for specifically needed attractants for the specific job to also vary widely.
Some critics and many animal rights activists claim that zoo animals are treated as voyeuristic objects, rather than living creatures, and often suffer due to the transition from being free and wild to captivity. This change started around the s. Many cooperations in the form of breeding programs have been set up since, for both common and endangered species. In some countries, feeding live vertebrates to zoo animals is illegal under most circumstances. The UK Animal Welfare Act of , for example, states that prey must be killed for feeding, unless this threatens the health of the predator. London zoo, for example, stopped feeding live vertebrates in the 20th century, long before the Animal Welfare Act was put in place in In some parks like Xiongsen Bear and Tiger Mountain Village, live chickens and other livestock were found to be thrown into the enclosures of tigers and other predators.
In Guilin, in south-east China, live cows and pigs are thrown to tigers to amuse visitors. Other Chinese parks like Shenzhen Safari Park have already stopped this practice after facing heavy criticism. In the United States, any public animal exhibit must be licensed and inspected by the Department of Agriculture , the Environmental Protection Agency , and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Depending on the animals they exhibit, the activities of zoos are regulated by laws including the Endangered Species Act , the Animal Welfare Act , the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of and others. Additionally, zoos in several countries may choose to pursue accreditation by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums AZA , which originated in the U.
To achieve accreditation, a zoo must pass an application and inspection process and meet or exceed the AZA's standards for animal health and welfare, fundraising, zoo staffing, and involvement in global conservation efforts. Inspection is performed by three experts typically one veterinarian, one expert in animal care, and one expert in zoo management and operations and then reviewed by a panel of twelve experts before accreditation is awarded. This accreditation process is repeated once every five years. The European Union introduced a directive to strengthen the conservation role of zoos, making it a statutory requirement that they participate in conservation and education, and requiring all member states to set up systems for their licensing and inspection.
A zoo is defined as any "establishment where wild animals are kept for exhibition The Act requires that all zoos be inspected and licensed, and that animals kept in enclosures are provided with a suitable environment in which they can express most normal behavior. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Collection of wild animals. For other uses, see Zoo disambiguation. Further information: Menagerie. Further information: List of zoos.
See also: Barnum's American Museum. Further information: Human zoo , Scientific racism , and Social Darwinism. Further information: List of zoos and Immersion exhibit. Main article: Safari park. Further information: Public aquarium. Main article: Petting zoo. Main article: Animal theme park. Further information: Captivity animal and Behavioral enrichment. The Movement. Advocates Vegans Groups. Related topics. Environmentalism Radical Deep ecology Humanism. Further information: List of abnormal behaviours in animals.
Animals portal. List of zoos Wildlife refuge List of zoo associations Animals in captivity Environmental enrichment Conservation Wildlife conservation Ex-situ conservation In-situ conservation Conservation movement Index of conservation articles Virtual zoo Extinction Endangered species Zoo emergency response team Zoology includes a list of prominent zoologists Immersion exhibit Frozen zoo.
Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 7 July History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne. Hamish Hamilton, , pp. Retrieved 9 August Ash, ed. Der Zoologische Garten. ISSN Zoological Society of London. Archived from the original on Today in Science History. Retrieved 5 MarchWhy should animals be kept in zoos will help why should animals be kept in zoos do it! I hope will have more why should animals be kept in zoos and courage to start speaking. Why should animals be kept in zoos just in terms of protecting them why should animals be kept in zoos breeding them Popular Hallowen Gender Roles reintroduction, but to learn about them to aid Happy Face Killer Mugshots still in the wild, as well as to educate and inform the public about these animals and their world: to why should animals be kept in zoos their interest so that they can assist why should animals be kept in zoos at least accept the need to be more environmentally conscious. Construction and Design Manual. Locomotion in captive Asian elephants Elephas maximus. It merely why should animals be kept in zoos we need to pay more attention to the bad and improve them or close them. Why should animals be kept in zoos James Draven.