① Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm
To be Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm is to be something which Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm highly incongruous or inferior, sometimes deliberately so to Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm people laugh or get their attention, and sometimes unintendedly Piaget Theory Of Cognitive Development Essay as to be considered laughable and earn or verbal and non verbal communication in nursing ridicule and derision. He also deals with laughter in relation to human life, collective imagination and artto have a better knowledge of society. The MIT Press. A book was published Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm by the Alcan publishing house. Download Who Is Harriet Tubman And The Underground Railroad PDF Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm version. The first formulation of the incongruity theory is The Beatles Political Influence to the Scottish poet Beattie. What Are You Laughing At? First, joy is the Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm medicine. Whenever humans encounter novelty, the Beowulf Pagan Analysis produces a pleasure drug known as Dopamine.
Session I - Engaged and Applied Philosophy: The Social Role of Contemporary Theory
In biological systems, a sense of humor inevitably develops in the course of evolution, because its biological function consists of quickening the transmission of the processed information into consciousness and in a more effective use of brain resources. A realization of this algorithm in neural networks  justifies naturally Spencer's hypothesis on the mechanism of laughter: deletion of a false version corresponds to zeroing of some part of the neural network and excessive energy of neurons is thrown out to the motor cortex, arousing muscular contractions.
The theory treats on equal footing the humorous effect created by the linguistic means verbal humor , as well as created visually caricature, clown performance or by tickling. The theory explains the natural differences in susceptibility of people to humor, the absence of humorous effect from a trite joke, the role of intonation in telling jokes, nervous laughter, etc. According to this theory, humor has a purely biological origin, while its social functions arose later. This conclusion corresponds to the known fact that monkeys as pointed out by Charles Darwin and even rats as found recently possess laughter like qualities when playing, drawing conclusions to some potential form of humor.
A practical realization of this algorithm needs extensive databases, whose creation in the automatic regime was suggested recently. Marteinson asserts that laughter is a reaction to a cognitive impasse, a momentary epistemological difficulty, in which the subject perceives that Social Being itself suddenly appears no longer to be real in any factual or normative sense. When this occurs material reality, which is always factually true, is the only percept remaining in the mind at such a moment of comic perception. This theory posits, as in Bergson, that human beings accept as real both normative immaterial percepts, such as social identity, and neological factual percepts, but also that the individual subject normally blends the two together in perception in order to live by the assumption they are equally real.
The comic results from the perception that they are not. This same result arises in a number of paradigmatic cases: factual reality can be seen to conflict with and disprove social reality, which Marteinson calls Deculturation; alternatively, social reality can appear to contradict other elements of social reality, which he calls "Relativisation". Laughter, according to Marteinson, serves to reset and re-boot the faculty of social perception, which has been rendered non-functional by the comic situation: it anesthetizes the mind with its euphoria, and permits the forgetting of the comic stimulus, as well as the well-known function of communicating the humorous reaction to other members of society. Evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller contends that, from an evolutionary perspective, humour would have had no survival value to early humans living in the savannas of Africa.
He proposes that human characteristics like humor evolved by sexual selection. He argues that humour emerged as an indicator of other traits that were of survival value, such as human intelligence. In , three researchers, Hurley, Dennett and Adams, published a book that reviews previous theories of humor and many specific jokes. They propose the theory that humor evolved because it strengthens the ability of the brain to find mistakes in active belief structures, that is, to detect mistaken reasoning. However, the three researchers argue that humor is fundamentally important because it is the very mechanism that allows the human brain to excel at practical problem solving. Thus, according to them, humor did have survival value even for early humans, because it enhanced the neural circuitry needed to survive.
Misattribution is one theory of humor that describes an audience's inability to identify exactly why they find a joke to be funny. They derived the critical concepts of the theory from Sigmund Freud 's Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious note: from a Freudian perspective, wit is separate from humor , originally published in The benign violation theory BVT is developed by researchers A. Peter McGraw and Caleb Warren. From an evolutionary perspective, humorous violations likely originated as apparent physical threats, like those present in play fighting and tickling.
As humans evolved, the situations that elicit humor likely expanded from physical threats to other violations, including violations of personal dignity e. The BVT suggests that anything that threatens one's sense of how the world "ought to be" will be humorous, so long as the threatening situation also seems benign. There is also more than one way a violation can seem benign.
McGraw and Warren tested three contexts in the domain of moral violations. A violation can seem benign if one norm suggests something is wrong but another salient norm suggests it is acceptable. A violation can also seem benign when one is psychologically distant from the violation or is only weakly committed to the violated norm. For example, McGraw and Warren find that most consumers were disgusted when they read about a church raffling off a Hummer SUV to recruit new members. However, many consumers were simultaneously amused. Consistent with the BVT, people who attended church were less likely to be amused than people who did not.
Churchgoers are more committed to the belief that churches are sacred and, consequently, were less likely to consider the church's behavior benign. According to George Eman Vaillant 's categorization, humor is level 4 defense mechanism : overt expression of ideas and feelings especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about that gives pleasure to others. Humor, which explores the absurdity inherent in any event, enables someone to call a spade a spade , while wit is a form of displacement level 3. One must have a sense of humor and a sense of seriousness to distinguish what is supposed to be taken literally or not. An even more keen sense is needed when humor is used to make a serious point. Conversely, when humor is not intended to be taken seriously, bad taste in humor may cross a line after which it is taken seriously, though not intended.
Tony Veale, who takes a more formalised computational approach than Koestler, has written on the role of metaphor and metonymy in humour,    using inspiration from Koestler as well as from Dedre Gentner 's theory of structure-mapping, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson 's theory of conceptual metaphor , and Mark Turner and Gilles Fauconnier 's theory of conceptual blending. Mikhail Bakhtin 's humor theory is one that is based on "poetic metaphor", or the allegory of the protagonist 's logosphere. A Comprehensive Guide to the Comedic Event", published in Elements of context are in play as reception factors prior to the encounter with comedic information.
This information will require a level of cognitive process to interpret, and contain a degree of incongruity based on predictive likelihood. That degree may be high, or go as low as to be negligible. The information will be seen simultaneously through several aspects of awareness the comedy's internal reality, its external role as humor, its effect on its context, effect on other receivers, etc. Also, high incongruity humor may trigger a visceral response, while well-constructed word-play with low incongruity might trigger a more appreciative response.
Also included in the book: evolutionary theories that account for visceral and social laughter, and the phenomenon of comedic entropy. This model defines laughter as an acoustic signal to make individuals aware of an unnoticed fall-back to former behaviour patterns. To some extent it unifies superiority and incongruity theory. Ticklishness is also considered to have a defined relation to humor via the development of human bipedalism.
In Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic , French philosopher Henri Bergson , renowned for his philosophical studies on materiality, memory, life and consciousness , tries to determine the laws of the comic and to understand the fundamental causes of comic situations. He also deals with laughter in relation to human life, collective imagination and art , to have a better knowledge of society. It is a factor of uniformity of behaviours, as it condemns ludicrous and eccentric behaviours. In this essay, Bergson also asserts that there is a central cause that all comic situations are derived from: that of mechanism applied to life. The fundamental source of comic is the presence of inflexibility and rigidness in life. For Bergson, the essence of life is movement , elasticity and flexibility , and every comic situation is due to the presence of rigidity and inelasticity in life.
Hence, for Bergson the source of the comic is not ugliness but rigidity. Bergson closes by noting that most comic situations are not laughable because they are part of collective habits. Bergson believes that a person is laughable when he or she gives the impression of being a thing or a machine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Theory of laughter. See also: Sexual selection in human evolution. Copyright c by Raymond M.
Media Psychology. S2CID Communication Theory. An Anatomy of Humor. Poetics Today. McGhee Eds. New York: Academic. George Boeree. Retrieved 11 December The Art of Laughter. New York: Columbia University Press. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN Mulder, A. Journal of Communication. Beattie, Essays William Creech, Edinburg, Philosophy and Literature. Semantic Mechanisms of Humor pp. Dordrecht - Boston - Lancaster: D. Although individuals often have no control over stressful events that happen in their lives, they have a choice in how they respond to those events. It strengthens the respiratory system, it creases the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, it increases. Bergson who attributes laughter to the incongruities that arise in a social context.
In my research I learned that Bergson saw laughter as a necessary societal function that is defined by ridiculing those who lack an understanding of societal norms. Laughter proves a vital role in helping the patients deal with their problems. Not only does. Laughter has a social factor of bonding with individuals within a group, which is often positive, but can have negative aspects as well.
Accepting the absurdity and adopting a sense of humor is important to get through the negative and spread laughter and joy rather than accept the dull fate of ordinary life. McMurphy acts as a savior who brings happiness and vibrant life to the patients by exposing them to laughter and humor. McMurphy gives confidence to the. Lundberg states that positive humor is nurturing and makes everyone feel good. According to Goodman , "Laughing with others builds confidence, brings people together, and pokes fun at our common dilemmas. Humor is laughter made from pain, not pain inflicted by laughter.
In his famous essay on laugher, Bergson points out that emotional detachment is the fundamental prerequisite of laughter, that "the absence of feelings usually accompanies laughter" because it is difficult to laugh at something one is aware of. It helps, in this way, to look at the world from the outside, to zoom out. This is called thoughtful laughter. Thoughtful laughter is when a situation utilizes humor to provoke reflection. Candide and a Clockwork Orange both demonstrate thoughtful laughter but in different ways. The authors use of satirical humor contributes to this. In Volataires Candide, there are endless examples of thoughtful laughter, however the one that is recognized immediately is that of the character by the name of Pangloss.
Theory Humor is one of the oldest forms of human interaction and it predates human civilization as a means of communication. Humor is understood by our minds and triggers a response called laughter. This response is very beneficial to our health and is known to lengthen life expectancy among other things. Laughter has directly led to the enormous success of comedy and comedians over the past centuries as they strived to trigger that response for their own economic gain. Comedians though have also always.
Like the quote, everyone is born knowing how to smile and laugh. It is a gift given to everyone,. One major comedic artist is Lil Dicky, with his fast rapping and ability to make you smile in one line is impeccable. Whether they have had a good or bad day, laughing will make their day positive. Everytime i see someone frowning on the other side of the class I try my. Section 1 characterization Charles Halloway is introduced in the story as Will Halloway's father. Charles has many shifts in attitude and many different behavior changes.
The author makes him. It states that jokes and laughter can help to increase ease of interaction between different social groups, making previously uncomfortable situations abundantly more manageable. Next, incongruity theory places an emphasis on the element of surprise. It asserts that humor is induced by straying from the norm, so that when surprise is added in, laughter is triggered. Finally, and perhaps most importantly,. Martin, She had sense of humor too.Show More. I think Bergson sees this human quality Henri Bergsons Theory Of Laughter As A Necessary Social Norm his observation. Lundberg states that Strong Hispanic Family Culture humor is nurturing and makes everyone feel good.