➊ Reflection On The Sixties Coops

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Reflection On The Sixties Coops



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60-80's Hollywood Actresses and Their Shocking Look In 2021

It is a great way to network with people in person as well as online. They hold regular conferences and events. The U3A movement is well established in the United Kingdom, but there are groups all around the world. Where do you network? Do you prefer meeting people in real life or communicating online? Have you found any specific networking groups for women over 60?

Please share your favorites in the comments below! Tags Encore Careers. Margaret Manning is the founder of Sixty and Me. She is an entrepreneur, author and speaker. Margaret is passionate about building dynamic and engaged communities that improve lives and change perceptions. Margaret can be contacted at margaret sixtyandme. We are community supported and may earn a commission when you buy through links on our site.

Learn more. Let's Have a Conversation! I have read and agree to Terms and Conditions of website and agree to my Facebook data being stored and used as per Privacy Policy. The Author Margaret Manning. You Might Also Like. It seriously tried to represent all tendencies on the left. It was eclectic. There was never a party line, which is not to say that there weren't changing emphases in different periods. And this is why it was such an exciting project, and so vibrant. Ideas were discussed there. There were almost always heated arguments going on. And there still are. Nevertheless the project passed through phases.

It's a shame there is so little documentation to help reconstruct these changing emphases. It's a shame also that no one thought to collect taped interviews as we went along, to build an oral history. But there was always so much work to do just to keep the project afloat. Radicals should probably start using oral histories more as we go along, considering that we don't have libraries, and that so many of our projects are so ephemeral, and that we often don't even have the resources to hang on to documents but who would save the tapes?

So very roughly, as an impression, the project was heavily Maoist at the beginning -- Maoist in the New Left sense, that is, a militant wing of the New Left which had rediscovered Marxism and then the Chinese revolution and Mao. But even then the store had a section on anarchism. By the late seventies the project was predominantly feminist. This lasted roughly until the mid-eighties, at which time the collective had become truly eclectic, having a couple of staunch anarchists, a Leninist or two, feminists, progressive liberals, and so forth.

By the late s the collective had become predominantly anarchist, but with Marxists, feminists and progressives still represented. The availability of new and more effective forms of birth control was a key underpinning of the sexual revolution. The notion of "recreational sex" without the threat of unwanted pregnancy radically changed the social dynamic and permitted both women and men much greater freedom in the selection of sexual lifestyles outside the confines of traditional marriage. For those born after World War II , the emergence of television as a source of entertainment and information—as well as the associated massive expansion of consumerism afforded by post-war affluence and encouraged by TV advertising —were key components in creating disillusionment for some younger people and in the formulation of new social behaviours, even as ad agencies heavily courted the "hip" youth market.

The breakdown of enforcement of the US Hays Code [45] concerning censorship in motion picture production, the use of new forms of artistic expression in European and Asian cinema, and the advent of modern production values heralded a new era of art-house , pornographic , and mainstream film production, distribution, and exhibition. The end of censorship resulted in a complete reformation of the western film industry. With new-found artistic freedom, a generation of exceptionally talented New Wave film makers working across all genres brought realistic depictions of previously prohibited subject matter to neighborhood theater screens for the first time, even as Hollywood film studios were still considered a part of the establishment by some elements of the counterculture.

By the later s, previously under-regarded FM radio replaced AM radio as the focal point for the ongoing explosion of rock and roll music, and became the nexus of youth-oriented news and advertising for the counterculture generation. Communes , collectives , and intentional communities regained popularity during this era. As the era progressed, many people established and populated new communities in response to not only disillusionment with standard community forms, but also dissatisfaction with certain elements of the counterculture itself.

Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international Green Movement. The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, yoga , occult practices and increased human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era. The " Generation Gap ", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era. These included the wearing of very long hair by men, [51] the wearing of natural or " Afro " hairstyles by black people, the donning of revealing clothing by women in public, and the mainstreaming of the psychedelic clothing and regalia of the short-lived hippie culture.

Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts often tie-dyed , or emblazoned with political or advertising statements , and Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans [52] became the enduring uniform of the generation, as daily wearing of suits along with traditional Western dress codes declined in use. The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the Disco and Punk Rock eras in the later s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jeans, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.

In the western world, the ongoing criminal legal status of the recreational drug industry was instrumental in the formation of an anti-establishment social dynamic by some of those coming of age during the counterculture era. The explosion of marijuana use during the era, in large part by students on fast-expanding college campuses, [53] created an attendant need for increasing numbers of people to conduct their personal affairs in secret in the procurement and use of banned substances. The classification of marijuana as a narcotic , and the attachment of severe criminal penalties for its use, drove the act of smoking marijuana, and experimentation with substances in general, deep underground. Many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments.

The confrontations between college students and other activists and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era. Many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as " fuzz " and "pig" as derogatory epithets for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon. The distrust of police was based not only on fear of police brutality during political protests, but also on generalized police corruption — especially police manufacture of false evidence, and outright entrapment, in drug cases.

In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of in New York City, [56] [57] [58] the Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago, [59] [60] [61] the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan , [62] and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, where National Guardsman acted as surrogates for police. The Vietnam War, and the protracted national divide between supporters and opponents of the war, were arguably the most important factors contributing to the rise of the larger counterculture movement. The widely accepted assertion that anti-war opinion was held only among the young is a myth, [65] [66] but enormous war protests consisting of thousands of mostly younger people in every major US city, and elsewhere across the Western world, effectively united millions against the war, and against the war policy that prevailed under five US congresses and during two presidential administrations.

The UK Underground was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs. Underground figure Barry Miles said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict.

In the Netherlands, Provo was a counterculture movement that focused on "provocative direct action 'pranks' and 'happenings' to arouse society from political and social indifference". In France, the General Strike centered in Paris in May united French students, and nearly toppled the government. Kommune 1 or K1 was a commune in West Germany known for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between satire and provocation. These events served as inspiration for the " Sponti " movement and other leftist groups. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music and drugs. Soon, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, including Jimi Hendrix. Long hair for males during this time was considered an expression of political and social attitudes in communist Czechoslovakia.

In , during a big campaign coordinated by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia , around 4, young males were forced to cut their hair, often in the cells with the assistance of the state police. As a response, the "community of long-haired" organized a protest in Prague. More than people cheered slogans such as "Give us back our hair! The state police arrested the organizers and several participants of the meeting. Some of them were given prison sentences.

Oz magazine was first published as a satirical humour magazine between and in Sydney , Australia , and, in its second and better known incarnation, became a "psychedelic hippy" magazine from to in London. Strongly identified as part of the underground press , it was the subject of two celebrated obscenity trials, one in Australia in and the other in the United Kingdom in The Digger was published monthly between and and served as a national outlet for many movements within Australia's counterculture with notable contributors—including second-wave feminists Anne Summers and Helen Garner, Californian cartoonist Ron Cobb's observations during a year-long stay in the country, Aboriginal activist Cheryl Buchanan, radical scientist Alan Roberts on global warming—and ongoing coverage of cultural trailblazers such as the Australian Performing Group aka Pram Factory , and emerging Australian filmmakers.

In Mexico, rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the s. Many Mexican rock stars became involved in the counterculture. Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the US flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. Anything that could be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the student protests of Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind now El Tri , remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following.

While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mids, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until Contrary to previous protests, the Cordobazo did not correspond to previous struggles, headed by Marxist workers' leaders, but associated students and workers in the same struggle against the military government. The Civil Rights Movement, a key element of the larger counterculture movement, involved the use of applied nonviolence to assure that equal rights guaranteed under the U. Constitution would apply to all citizens. Many states illegally denied many of these rights to African-Americans, and this was partially successfully addressed in the early and mids in several major nonviolent movements.

The Chicano Movement of the s, also called the Chicano civil rights movement, was a civil rights movement extending the Mexican-American civil rights movement of the s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment. The Asian American movement was a sociopolitical movement in which the widespread grassroots effort of Asian Americans affected racial, social and political change in the U. S, reaching its peak in the late s to mids. During this period Asian Americans promoted antiwar and anti-imperialist activism, directly opposing what was viewed as an unjust Vietnam war. The Nuyorican Movement is a cultural and intellectual movement involving poets, writers, musicians and artists who are Puerto Rican or of Puerto-Rican descent, who live in or near New York City , and either call themselves or are known as Nuyoricans.

Young Cuban exiles in the United States would develop interests in Cuban identity, and politics. Figures like Fidel Castro and Che Guevara were also heavily praised among American student radicals at the time. These factors helped push some young Cubans into advocating for different degrees of rapprochement with Cuba. Much of the s counterculture originated on college campuses. At Berkeley a group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. Other rebellious young people, who were not students, also contributed to the Free Speech Movement. The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the s and s in the Western world.

They differed from earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards labour activism, and instead adopted social activism. The American "New Left" is associated with college campus mass protests and radical leftist movements. The movements began to wind down in the s, when activists either committed themselves to party projects, developed social justice organizations, moved into identity politics or alternative lifestyles , or became politically inactive. The emergence of the New Left in the s and s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism.

The New Left also led to a revival of anarchism. Social ecology , autonomism and, more recently, participatory economics parecon , and Inclusive Democracy emerged from this. A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the s and s. In the 70s, it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with a pacifism orientation, naturism , etc, By late , the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.

In Trafalgar Square , London in , [] in an act of civil disobedience , 60,—, protesters made up of students and pacifists converged in what was to become the " ban the Bomb " demonstrations. Opposition to the Vietnam War began in on United States college campuses. Student activism became a dominant theme among the baby boomers, growing to include many other demographic groups. Exemptions and deferments for the middle and upper classes resulted in the induction of a disproportionate number of poor, working-class, and minority registrants.

Countercultural books such as MacBird by Barbara Garson and much of the counterculture music encouraged a spirit of non-conformism and anti-establishmentarianism. By , the year after a large march to the United Nations in New York City and a large protest at the Pentagon were undertaken, a majority of people in the country opposed the war. The application of nuclear technology , both as a source of energy and as an instrument of war, has been controversial. Scientists and diplomats have debated the nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in In and , at the height of the Cold War , about 50, women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons.

Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early s, [] and in the late s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. The project was cancelled in and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. The role of women as full-time homemakers in industrial society was challenged in , when US feminist Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique , giving momentum to the women's movement and influencing what many called Second-wave feminism. Other activists, such as Gloria Steinem and Angela Davis , either organized, influenced, or educated many of a younger generation of women to endorse and expand feminist thought.

Feminism gained further currency within the protest movements of the late s, as women in movements such as Students for a Democratic Society rebelled against the "support" role they believed they had been consigned to within the male-dominated New Left, as well as against perceived manifestations and statements of sexism within some radical groups. The pamphlet Women and Their Bodies , soon expanded into the book Our Bodies, Ourselves , was particularly influential in bringing about the new feminist consciousness.

The s counterculture embraced a back-to-the-land ethic, and communes of the era often relocated to the country from cities. Counterculture environmentalists were quick to grasp the implications of Ehrlich's writings on overpopulation , the Hubbert " peak oil " prediction, and more general concerns over pollution , litter , the environmental effects of the Vietnam War, automobile-dependent lifestyles, and nuclear energy.

More broadly they saw that the dilemmas of energy and resource allocation would have implications for geo-politics, lifestyle, environment, and other dimensions of modern life. The "back to nature" theme was already prevalent in the counterculture by the time of the Woodstock festival, while the first Earth Day in was significant in bringing environmental concerns to the forefront of youth culture. At the start of the s, counterculture-oriented publications like the Whole Earth Catalog and The Mother Earth News were popular, out of which emerged a back to the land movement.

The s and early s counterculture were early adopters of practices such as recycling and organic farming long before they became mainstream. The counterculture interest in ecology progressed well into the s: particularly influential were New Left eco-anarchist Murray Bookchin , Jerry Mander 's criticism of the effects of television on society, Ernest Callenbach 's novel Ecotopia , Edward Abbey 's fiction and non-fiction writings, and E.

Schumacher 's economics book Small Is Beautiful. It became notorious for being associated with property violence and threats committed without official approval of the organization, from a incident when two members were crushed under the rear wheels of a cattle truck, for orchestrating the withholding of commodities, and for opposition to coops unwilling to withhold. During withholding protests, farmers would purposely destroy food or wastefully slaughter their animals in an attempt to raise prices and gain media exposure. The NFO failed to persuade the U. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, , at the Stonewall Inn , a gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City.

This is frequently cited as the first instance in US history when people in the gay community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted Gay minorities, and became the defining event that marked the start of the Gay rights movement in the United States and around the world. Mod is a subculture that began in London and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, [] and continues today on a smaller scale. Focused on music and fashion, the subculture has its roots in a small group of stylish London -based young men in the late s who were termed modernists because they listened to modern jazz.

The original mod scene was associated with amphetamine -fuelled all-night dancing at clubs. During the early to mid s, as mod grew and spread throughout the UK, certain elements of the mod scene became engaged in well-publicised clashes with members of rival subculture, rockers. The mods and rockers conflict led sociologist Stanley Cohen to use the term " moral panic " in his study about the two youth subcultures , [] which examined media coverage of the mod and rocker riots in the s.

By , conflicts between mods and rockers began to subside and mods increasingly gravitated towards pop art and psychedelia. London became synonymous with fashion, music, and pop culture in these years, a period often referred to as " Swinging London ". During this time, mod fashions spread to other countries and became popular in the United States and elsewhere—with mod now viewed less as an isolated subculture, but emblematic of the larger youth culture of the era.

San Francisco's flower children , also called "hippies" by local newspaper columnist Herb Caen , adopted new styles of dress, experimented with psychedelic drugs , lived communally and developed a vibrant music scene. Some hippies formed communes to live as far outside of the established system as possible. This aspect of the counterculture rejected active political engagement with the mainstream and, following the dictate of Timothy Leary to " Turn on, tune in, drop out ", hoped to change society by dropping out of it. Looking back on his own life as a Harvard professor prior to , Leary interpreted it to have been that of "an anonymous institutional employee who drove to work each morning in a long line of commuter cars and drove home each night and drank martinis As members of the hippie movement grew older and moderated their lives and their views, and especially after US involvement in the Vietnam War ended in the mids, the counterculture was largely absorbed by the mainstream, leaving a lasting impact on philosophy, morality, music, art, alternative health and diet, lifestyle and fashion.

In addition to a new style of clothing, philosophy, art, music and various views on anti-war, and anti-establishment, some hippies decided to turn away from modern society and re-settle on ranches, or communes. According to Timothy Miller,. Drop City brought together most of the themes that had been developing in other recent communities-anarchy, pacifism, sexual freedom, rural isolation, interest in drugs, art-and wrapped them flamboyantly into a commune not quite like any that had gone before []. Many of the inhabitants practiced acts like reusing trash and recycled materials to build geodesic domes for shelter and other various purposes; using various drugs like marijuana and LSD, and creating various pieces of Drop Art.

After the initial success of Drop City, visitors would take the idea of communes and spread them. Another commune called "The Ranch" was very similar to the culture of Drop City, as well as new concepts like giving children of the commune extensive freedoms known as "children's rights". Psychedelic film. During the s, this second group of casual lysergic acid diethylamide LSD users evolved and expanded into a subculture that extolled the mystical and religious symbolism often engendered by the drug's powerful effects, and advocated its use as a method of raising consciousness.

The personalities associated with the subculture, gurus such as Timothy Leary and psychedelic rock musicians such as the Grateful Dead , Pink Floyd , Jimi Hendrix , the Byrds , Janis Joplin , the Doors , and the Beatles , soon attracted a great deal of publicity, generating further interest in LSD. The popularization of LSD outside of the medical world was hastened when individuals such as Ken Kesey participated in drug trials and liked what they saw. In , Sandoz laboratories stopped its still legal shipments of LSD to the United States for research and psychiatric use, after a request from the US government concerned about its use.

As most research on psychedelics began in the s and 50s, heavy experimentation made its effect in the s during this era of change and movement. Researchers were gaining acknowledgment and popularity with their promotion of psychedelia. This really anchored the change that counterculture instigators and followers began. Most research was conducted at top collegiate institutes, such as Harvard University. Timothy Leary and his Harvard research team had hopes for potential changes in society. Their research began with psilocybin mushrooms and was called the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In one study known as the Concord Prison Experiment , Leary investigated the potential for psilocybin to reduce recidivism in criminals being released from prison.

After the research sessions, Leary did a follow-up. But with many officials skeptical, this breakthrough was not promoted. Because of the personal experiences with these drugs Leary and his many outstanding colleagues, Aldous Huxley The Doors of Perception and Alan Watts The Joyous Cosmology believed that these were the mechanisms that could bring peace to not only the nation but the world.

As their research continued the media followed them and published their work and documented their behavior, the trend of this counterculture drug experimentation began. Leary made attempts to bring more organized awareness to people interested in the study of psychedelics. He confronted the Senate committee in Washington and recommended for colleges to authorize the conduction of laboratory courses in psychedelics. He noted that these courses would "end the indiscriminate use of LSD and would be the most popular and productive courses ever offered".

The change they sought for the world had not been permitted by the political systems of all the nations these men pursued their research in. Ram Dass states, "Tim and I actually had a chart on the wall about how soon everyone would be enlightened We found out that real change is harder. We downplayed the fact that the psychedelic experience isn't for everyone. Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters helped shape the developing character of the s counterculture when they embarked on a cross-country voyage during the summer of in a psychedelic school bus named Furthur. These trials tested the effects of LSD, psilocybin, mescaline , and other psychedelic drugs. After the medical trials, Kesey continued experimenting on his own, and involved many close friends; collectively they became known as the "Merry Pranksters".

The Pranksters visited Harvard LSD proponent Timothy Leary at his Millbrook , New York retreat, and experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs, primarily as a means for internal reflection and personal growth, became a constant during the Prankster trip. The Pranksters created a direct link between the s Beat Generation and the s psychedelic scene; the bus was driven by Beat icon Neal Cassady , Beat poet Allen Ginsberg was on board for a time, and they dropped in on Cassady's friend, Beat author Jack Kerouac — though Kerouac declined to participate in the Prankster scene.

Experimentation with LSD, peyote , psilocybin mushrooms , MDA , marijuana , and other psychedelic drugs became a major component of s counterculture, influencing philosophy, art , music and styles of dress. Jim DeRogatis wrote that peyote , a small cactus containing the psychedelic alkaloid mescaline , was widely available in Austin, Texas , a countercultural hub in the early s. The sexual revolution also known as a time of "sexual liberation" was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the Western world from the s to the s.

Contraception and the pill , public nudity , the normalization of premarital sex , homosexuality and alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of abortion all followed. Underground newspapers sprang up in most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political opposition to " The Establishment ", colorful experimental and often explicitly drug-influenced approaches to art, music and cinema, and uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom.

The papers also often included comic strips, from which the underground comix were an outgrowth. As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. The forms of escape and resistance manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee. From hippies tossing the Frisbee at festivals and concerts came today's popular disc sports.

The Situationist International was a restricted group of international revolutionaries founded in , and which had its peak in its influence on the unprecedented general wildcat strikes of May in France. With their ideas rooted in Marxism and the 20th-century European artistic avant-gardes , they advocated experiences of life being alternative to those admitted by the capitalist order , for the fulfillment of human primitive desires and the pursuing of a superior passional quality. For this purpose they suggested and experimented with the construction of situations , namely the setting up of environments favorable for the fulfillment of such desires. Using methods drawn from the arts, they developed a series of experimental fields of study for the construction of such situations, like unitary urbanism and psychogeography.

They fought against the main obstacle on the fulfillment of such superior passional living, identified by them in advanced capitalism. Their theoretical work peaked on the highly influential book The Society of the Spectacle by Guy Debord. Debord argued in that spectacular features like mass media and advertising have a central role in an advanced capitalist society, which is to show a fake reality in order to mask the real capitalist degradation of human life. Raoul Vaneigem wrote The Revolution of Everyday Life which takes the field of " everyday life " as the ground upon which communication and participation can occur, or, as is more commonly the case, be perverted and abstracted into pseudo-forms. Fluxus a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow" is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the s.

They have been active in Neo-Dada noise music , visual art , literature, urban planning , architecture, and design. Fluxus is often described as intermedia , a term coined by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins in a famous essay. Fluxus encouraged a " do-it-yourself " aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. As Fluxus artist Robert Filliou wrote, however, Fluxus differed from Dada in its richer set of aspirations, and the positive social and communitarian aspirations of Fluxus far outweighed the anti-art tendency that also marked the group.

In the s, the Dada-influenced art group Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be "an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth. The 60s were a leap in human consciousness. The youth of today must go there to find themselves. Although Dylan was first popular for his protest music. Tambourine Man saw a stylistic shift in Dylan's work, from topical to abstract and imaginative, included some of the first uses of surrealistic imagery in popular music and has been viewed as a call to drugs such as LSD.

The Beach Boys ' album Pet Sounds served as a major source of inspiration for other contemporary acts, most notably directly inspiring the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The single " Good Vibrations " soared to number one globally, completely changing the perception of what a record could be. However, the project collapsed and The Beach Boys released a stripped down and reimagined version called Smiley Smile , which failed to make a big commercial impact but was also highly influential, most notably on The Who 's Pete Townshend. The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" e. Detroit's MC5 also came out of the underground rock music scene of the late s. They introduced a more aggressive evolution of garage rock which was often fused with sociopolitical and countercultural lyrics of the era, such as in the song "Motor City Is Burning" a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot of to the Detroit riot of Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, The Rag , and cutting edge graphic artists like Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers creator Gilbert Shelton , underground comix pioneer Jack Jackson Jaxon , and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin.

The s was also an era of rock festivals , which played an important role in spreading the counterculture across the US. Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the s and s. Although the music produced by free jazz composers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop , hard bop , and modal jazz , which had developed in the s and s. Each in their own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos.

While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive", often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation. Free jazz is strongly associated with the s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane. Although today "free jazz" is the generally used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing". Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the logic or inclination of the musician s involved.

The term can refer to both a technique employed by any musician in any genre and as a recognizable genre in its own right. Free improvisation , as a genre of music, developed in the U. AllMusic Guide states that "until around , the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate". However, some make a distinction between the two terms. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band. The recording "mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion. While the album gave Davis a gold record , the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics.

See also: List of films related to the hippie subculture The counterculture was not only affected by cinema, but was also instrumental in the provision of era-relevant content and talent for the film industry. Bonnie and Clyde struck a chord with the youth as "the alienation of the young in the s was comparable to the director's image of the s. A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media. Hippie exploitation films are s exploitation films about the hippie counterculture [] with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as marijuana and LSD use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. The musical play Hair shocked stage audiences with full-frontal nudity.

Dennis Hopper 's "Road Trip" adventure Easy Rider became accepted as one of the landmark films of the era. Inaugurated by the release of Andy Warhol ' s Blue Movie , the phenomenon of adult erotic films being publicly discussed by celebrities like Johnny Carson and Bob Hope , [] and taken seriously by critics like Roger Ebert , [] [] a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times , as " porno chic ", and later known as the Golden Age of Porn , began, for the first time, in modern American culture. In France the New Wave was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late s and s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema.

Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm and is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm.

During the s, the term " art film " began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U. In the s "art film" became a euphemism in the U. By the s, the term was used to describe sexually explicit European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film I Am Curious Yellow. Cultural historians—such as Theodore Roszak in his essay "From Satori to Silicon Valley" and John Markoff in his book What the Dormouse Said , [] have pointed out that many of the early pioneers of personal computing emerged from within the West Coast counterculture.

Many early computing and networking pioneers, after discovering LSD and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late s and early s, would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world of technology, especially in Silicon Valley. Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religion in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous and folk beliefs. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, hippies were likely to embrace Buddhism , Daoism , Hinduism , Unitarian Universalism and the restorationist Christianity of the Jesus Movement.

Some hippies embraced neo-paganism , especially Wicca. Wicca is a witchcraft religion which became more prominent beginning in , with the repeal of the Witchcraft Act of , after which Gerald Gardner and then others such as Charles Cardell and Cecil Williamson began publicising their own versions of the Craft. Gardner and others never used the term "Wicca" as a religious identifier, simply referring to the "witch cult", "witchcraft", and the "Old Religion". However, Gardner did refer to witches as "the Wica". Following Gardner's death in , the Craft continued to grow unabated despite sensationalism and negative portrayals in British tabloids, with new traditions being propagated by figures like Robert Cochrane , Sybil Leek and most importantly Alex Sanders , whose Alexandrian Wicca , which was predominantly based upon Gardnerian Wicca, albeit with an emphasis placed on ceremonial magic , spread quickly and gained much media attention.

In his book, Hippies and American Values , Timothy Miller described the hippie ethos as essentially a "religious movement" whose goal was to transcend the limitations of mainstream religious institutions. Beginning in , Gaskin's "Monday Night Class" eventually outgrew the lecture hall, and attracted 1, hippie followers in an open discussion of spiritual values, drawing from Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu teachings. In , Gaskin founded a Tennessee community called The Farm , and he still lists his religion as "Hippie".

Timothy Leary was an American psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. On September 19, , Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery , a religion declaring LSD as its holy sacrament, in part as an unsuccessful attempt to maintain legal status for the use of LSD and other psychedelics for the religion's adherents based on a "freedom of religion" argument. It was originally published under the title "Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost" in a limited edition of five copies in The title, literally meaning "Discordant Principles", is in keeping with the tendency of Latin to prefer hypotactic grammatical arrangements. In English, one would expect the title to be "Principles of Discord".

The lasting impact including unintended consequences , creative output, and general legacy of the counterculture era continue to be actively discussed, debated, despised and celebrated. Even the notions of when the counterculture subsumed the Beat Generation, when it gave way to the successor generation, and what happened in between are open for debate. According to notable UK Underground and counterculture author Barry Miles, "It seemed to me that the Seventies was when most of the things that people attribute to the sixties really happened: this was the age of extremes, people took more drugs, had longer hair, weirder clothes, had more sex, protested more violently and encountered more opposition from the establishment.

It was the era of sex and drugs and rock'n'roll, as Ian Dury said. The countercultural explosion of the s really only involved a few thousand people in the UK and perhaps ten times that in the USA — largely because of opposition to the Vietnam war, whereas in the Seventies the ideas had spread out across the world. A Columbia University teaching unit on the counterculture era notes: "Although historians disagree over the influence of the counterculture on American politics and society, most describe the counterculture in similar terms.

Even so, many liberal and leftist historians find constructive elements in it, while those on the right tend not to. Screen legend John Wayne equated aspects of s social programs with the rise of the welfare state , "I know all about that. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load I believe in welfare—a welfare work program.

I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim. Former liberal Democrat Ronald Reagan , who later became a conservative Governor of California and 40th President of the US, remarked about one group of protesters carrying signs, "The last bunch of pickets were carrying signs that said 'Make love, not war.

The "generation gap" between the affluent young and their often poverty-scarred parents was a critical component of s culture. In an interview with journalist Gloria Steinem during the US presidential campaign, soon-to-be First Lady Pat Nixon exposed the generational chasm in worldview between Steinem, 20 years her junior, and herself after Steinem probed Mrs. Nixon as to her youth, role models, and lifestyle. A hardscrabble child of the Great Depression, Pat Nixon told Steinem, "I never had time to think about things like that, who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas.

I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work.

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